of

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英語[编辑]

詞源1[编辑]

來自中古英語 of,來自古英語 of (從、自)af的非重音形式,æf (從、離、離開),來自原始日耳曼語 *ab (離開;遠離)off同源對似詞,為古英語單詞的重音派生詞。參見off

替代寫法[编辑]

發音[编辑]

  • (重音)
    • (英國) 英語發音ŏv, IPA(幫助)/ɒv/
    • (澳大利亞新西蘭) 英語發音ŏv, IPA(幫助)/ɔv/
    • (美國) 英語發音ŭv, IPA(幫助)/ʌv/
    • 文檔
  • (非重音)

介詞[编辑]

英語維基百科有一篇文章關於:

of

  1. 表達距離或移動。
    1. (現已棄用或方言) (遠處、方向),等同於“off”。[自西元9世紀]
    2. (棄用僅用於短語) 此後(特定時間,先前的情況等)。[自西元9世紀]
      • 1526, William Tyndale, trans. Bible, Mark IX:
        And he axed his father: howe longe is it agoo, sens this hath happened hym? And he sayde, of a chylde.
      • 1616, William Shakespeare, Two Gentlemen of Verona, IV.4:
        one that I brought vp of a puppy[...]I was sent to deliuer him, as a present to Mistris Siluia, from my Master.
      • 2010 July 29, Simon Tisdall, The Guardian:
        Obama has been obliged to make nice of late in hope of rescuing the moribund two-state process and preventing resumed West Bank settlement building.
    3. ,遠離(位置、人群、距離等)。[自西元10世紀]
      There are no shops within twenty miles of the cottage.
      村舍方圓二十哩以內沒有商店。
      • 1932 September 30, Time:
        Though Washington does not officially recognize Moscow, the Hoover Administration permits a Soviet Russian Information Bureau to flourish in a modest red brick house on Massachusetts Avenue, within a mile of the White House.
      • 2010 November 7, The Guardian:
        There are now upwards of 1.4 million 99ers in America facing a life with no benefits and few prospects for finding a job in a market in which companies are still not hiring.
    4. (Canada, US, 蘇格蘭, 愛爾蘭) 表示多少分鐘到幾整點。[自西元19世紀]
      What's the time? / Nearly a quarter of three.
      現在幾點? / 差不多三點一刻。
      • 1940 June 17, "Little Bull Booed", Time:
        "Fellow Democrats," he began, "I left Washington at a quarter of two this morning [...]."
      • 1982, TC Boyle, Water Music, Penguin, 2006, page 194:
        Quarter of seven. Fifteen minutes to go.
  2. 表達分離
    1. 表示去除缺少分離,謂語用及物動詞,帶賓語。 [自10世紀]
      Finally she was relieved of the burden of caring for her sick husband.
      最後,她終於卸了照顧生病丈夫的重擔。
      • Template:RQ:Mlry MrtDrthr
      • , II.1:
        Antigonus [took] upon him to favour a souldier of his by reason of his vertue and valour, to have great care of him, and see whether they could recover him of a lingering and inward disease which had long tormented him [...].
      • 1816 February 20, Jane Austen, Letter:
        I am almost entirely cured of my rheumatism—just a little pain in my knee now and then, to make me remember what it was, and keep on flannel.
      • 1951, Time, 3 September:
        In Houston, ten minutes after the Lindquist Finance Corp. was robbed of $447, Office Manager Howard Willson got a phone call from the thief who complained: "You didn't have enough money over there."
    2. 表示去除、缺少或分離,結果狀態用形容詞 [自10世紀]
      He seemed devoid of human feelings.
      他似乎缺乏人類情感。
      • 1731 August 28, Jonathan Swift, Letter:
        But schemes are perfectly accidental: some will appear barren of hints and matter, but prove to be fruitful [...].
      • 2010 October 31, Stuart James, The Guardian:
        Yet for long spells Villa looked laboured and devoid of ideas.
    3. (棄用) 表示去除、缺少或分離,謂語用不及物動詞。 [14-19世紀]
      • 1822, Jacob Bailey Moore, New Hampshire, volume 1, page 5:
        He was kindly treated by the people at Saco, and recovered of his wounds.
  3. 表達起源。
    1. 表達起源先祖 [自9世紀]
      The word is believed to be of Japanese origin.
      一般認為這個詞來自日語。
      • 1526, William Tyndale, trans. Bible, Acts II:
        They wondred all, and marveylled sayinge amonge themselves: Loke, are not all these which speake off galile? And howe heare we every man his awne tongue wherein we were boren?
      • 1954, The Rotarian, volume 85:6:
        My father was born of a family of weavers in Manchester, England.
      • 2010, "The Cost of Repair", The Economist:
        Nothing may come of these ideas, yet their potential should not be dismissed.
    2. 用於別稱,表示人的出生地、住處、所在國或其他與之相關的地名。
      Jesus of Nazareth
      拿撒勒耶穌(接家鄉)
      Anselm of Canterbury
      坎特伯雷安瑟莫(接所在教區)
      Anselm of Aosta
      奧斯塔安瑟莫(接出生地)
      Anselm of Bec
      貝克安瑟莫(接所在修道院)
      Pedro II of Brazil
      巴西佩德羅二世(接統治區域)
      Mrs Miggins of Gasworks Road, Mudchester
      住在馬切斯特煤氣廠路的米金斯女士(接住處)
    3. 表示動作或情感的來源;引出原因起因出於因為 [自9世紀]
      The invention was born of necessity.
      這項發明是其必然性而誕生的。
      • Template:RQ:Mlry MrtDrthr
      • 1803, John Smalley, Sermons:
        Undoubtedly it is to be understood, that inflicting deserved punishment on all evil doers, of right, belongs to God.
      • 2008 December 3, Rowenna Davis, The Guardian:
        The woman who danced for me said she was there of her own free will, but when I pushed a bit further, I discovered that she "owed a man a lot of money", and had to pay it back quickly.
    4. (接不及物動詞) 表示動作的來源或原因。 [自10世紀]
      It is said that she died of a broken heart.
      據說她死悲傷過度。
      • 2006, Joyce Carol Oates, The Female of the Species:
        He smelled of beer and cigarette smoke and his own body.
      • 2010 October 5, Rebecca Omonira-Oyekanmi, The Guardian:
        Two men, one from Somalia and one from Zimbabwe, died of terminal illnesses shortly after their incarceration ended.
    5. (接形容詞) 表示形容詞修飾的主語或原因。 [自13世紀]
      I am tired of all this nonsense.
      我已經厭倦了這些胡言亂語。
      • 2010 September 23, Bagehot, The Economist:
        Lib Dems were appalled by Mr Boles’s offer, however kindly meant: the party is so frightened of losing its independence under Mr Clegg that such a pact would “kill” him, says a senior member.
      • 2015, Vincent J. M. DiMaio, Gunshot Wounds:
        Thus, one finds individuals dead of a gunshot wound with potentially lethal levels of drugs.
  4. 表示施事。
    1. (接動詞被動形) 表示動作發出的主體(現在一般後接by)。 [自9世紀]
      I am not particularly enamoured of this idea.
      我不是很喜歡這個想法。
      • 1526, William Tyndale, trans. Bible, Acts IX:
        After a good while, the iewes toke cousell amonge themselves to kyll him. But their layinges awayte wer knowen of Saul.
      • , II.1:
        she might appeare to be the lively patterne of another Lucrece, yet know I certainly that, both before that time and afterward, she had beene enjoyed of others upon easier composition.
      • 1995, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Family: A Proclamation to the World:
        The family is ordained of God.
      • 2008 March 27, "Selling rhythm to the world", The Economist:
        Colombia and Venezuela share an elegantly restrained style, with much back-stepping, smaller hand-movements and little use of the elaborate, arm-tangling moves beloved of Cuban dancers.
    2. 用於引出“主語所有格”;接名詞,組成名詞短語的後置修飾語 (也請參見下方的“屬有”義項)。 [自13世紀]
      The contract can be terminated at any time with the agreement of both parties.
      只要兩黨都能同意,協定可以隨時達成。
      • 1994, Paul Coates, Film at the Intersection of High and Mass Culture, page 136:
        In Blood and Sand, meanwhile, Valentino repeatedly solicits the attention of women who have turned away from him.
      • 2009 December 28, "Head to head", The Economist:
        Somehow Croatia has escaped the opprobrium of the likes of the German Christian Democrats and others that are against any rapid enlargement of the European Union to the include rest of the western Balkans.
    3. (接形容詞) 表示形容詞所描述之物的施事者。 [自16世紀]
      It was very brave of you to speak out like that.
      你那樣大膽說出來,很勇敢。
      • 1815, Jane Austen, Emma:
        When this was over, Mr. Woodhouse gratefully observed,—"It is very kind of you, Mr. Knightley, to come out at this late hour to call upon us."
      • 2007 January 10, Dorian Lynskey, The Guardian:
        Morrissey's spokesperson says he is considering the offer. It would perhaps be rude of him to decline.
  5. 表達構成物質
    1. (接於表示建設、製造的動詞後) 表示材料,製造所需的物質 [自9世紀]
      Many 'corks' are now actually made of plastic.
      現在的許多“軟木塞”實際上是塑料做的。
      • 1846, Herman Melville, Typee:
        The mallet is made of a hard heavy wood resembling ebony, is about twelve inches in length, and perhaps two in breadth, with a rounded handle at one end [...].
    2. (直接置於名詞後) 表示前述物體製作所需的材料。 [自10世紀]
      She wore a dress of silk.
      她穿著一席絲綢裙子。
      • 2010 January 23, Simon Mawer, The Guardian:
        Perhaps symbolically, Van Doesburg was building a house of straw: he died within a few months of completion, not in Meudon but in Davos, of a heart attack following a bout of asthma.
    3. 表示集合名詞的組成。 [自12世紀]
      What a lot of nonsense!
      胡扯了一大通!
      • 1853, William Makepeace Thackeray, Barry Lyndon:
        His papers at this period contain a mass of very unedifying and uninteresting documents [...].
      • 2010 October 31, Polly Vernon, The Guardian:
        I'd expected to be confronted by oodles of barely suppressed tension and leather-clad, pouty-mouthed, large-haired sexiness; the visual shorthand of rock gods in general, and Jon Bon Jovi in particular.
    4. 表示某事物是一類事物中的典型例子。 [自12世紀]
      Welcome to the historic town of Harwich.
      歡迎來到哈里奇古鎮。
      • 1719, Daniel Defoe, Robinson Crusoe:
        This having the rainy month of March and April to water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded a very good crop [...].
      • 2010 October 30, Maya Jaggi, The Guardian:
        In his studio in the Behlendorf woods, near the Baltic city of Lübeck, Günter Grass reflects on the outcry over his fictive memoir Peeling the Onion.
    5. 連接兩個差不多同位的名詞,前一名詞修飾後一名詞。 [自14世紀]
      I'm not driving this wreck of a car.
      我才不開這破車。
      • 1911, Katherine Mansfield, In a German Pension:
        As he swallowed the soup his heart warmed to this fool of a girl.
      • 2010 August 22, Sean O'Hagan, The Guardian:
        "I'm having a bitch of a day," he says, after ordering a restorative pint of Guinness and flopping down in a seat by the front window.
  6. 表示主題
    1. 連接動詞(一般與想、感受、表達等有關)和主語、主題有關關於 [自10世紀]
      I'm always thinking of you.
      我總是在想著你。
      • 1815, Jane Austen, Emma:
        he spoke of his uncle with warm regard, was fond of talking of him [...].
      • Template:RQ:Eliot Middlemarch
      • 2010 October 19, Rebecca Seal, The Guardian:
        while producing Cook, which includes more than 250 seasonal recipes by 80 different chefs, we washed up more than 500 times (oh, how I dreamed of dishwashers).
    2. (接名詞(現在基本用於表示知識、交流等的名詞)) 引出主題有關關於 [自12世紀]
      He told us the story of his journey to India.
      他告訴我們他去印度旅行時的故事。
      • 2010 October 21, The Economist:
        Recession and rising unemployment have put paid to most thoughts of further EU enlargement.
    3. (接形容詞) 引出主題。 [自15世紀]
      This behaviour is typical of teenagers.
      這是青少年的典型行為。
      • 1851, Herman Melville, Moby-Dick:
        The same secludedness and isolation to which the schoolmaster whale betakes himself in his advancing years, is true of all aged Sperm Whales.
  7. 表示部分。
    1. (接數詞或其他表示數量的詞) 引出部分所從屬的整體。 [自9世紀]
      Most of these apples are rotten.
      這些蘋果大部分都爛掉了。
      • Template:RQ:Mlry MrtDrthr:
        But as for me said sire Gareth I medle not of their maters therfore there is none of them that loueth me / And for I vnderstande they be murtherers of good knyghtes I lefte theyre company
      • 1789, Edward Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, volume 6:
        The dead bodies of the Koreish were despoiled and insulted; two of the most obnoxious prisoners were punished with death [...].
      • 2010 November 10, Michael Wood, The Guardian:
        Many of the civilisational achievements of Mesopotamia are the product of that symbiosis.
    2. (接名詞) 表示範圍內的一部分。 [自9世紀]
      • 2005, Naomi Wolf, The Treehouse, page 58:
        everyone, even the ladies of the village, called the dish tzigayner shmeklekh, or “gypsies' penises.”
        村裡的所有人,甚至女士們都將這道菜稱作“tzigayner shmeklekh”,即“吉普賽人的雞巴”。
      • 2006, Norman Mailer, The Big Empty:
        That, I think, is the buried core of the outrage people feel most generally.
    3. (現在為古舊, 書面, 後接所要修飾的名詞,或接在 to be 之後作表語) 一個一些 [自9世紀]
      On the whole, they seem to be of the decent sort.
      總體來說,他們還算體面。
      • 1526, William Tyndale, trans. Bible, Matthew XXV:
        And the folysshe sayde to the wyse: geve us of youre oyle, for oure lampes goo out?
      • Template:RQ:Keats Lamia
      • 1846, James Fenimore Cooper, The Redskins:
        Dunning, however, is of the old school, and does not like new faces; so he will have no Irishman at his door [...].
    4. 連接名詞或代詞所有格,表示部分(不過現在經常和“屬有”義合併)。 [自13世紀]
      He is a friend of mine.
      他是我的朋友。
      (字面意思为:“他是我朋友中的一個。”)
      • 1893, Oscar Wilde, A Woman of No Importance, IV:
        He is just what I should have liked a son of mine to be.
      • 2010 August 27, Michael Tomasky, The Guardian:
        In its flattering way, the press tried to invest this habit of Bush's with the sense that it was indicative of a particularly sharp wit.
  8. 表示屬有。
    1. 屬於、存在或發生在某地、某時。對比“起源”義。 [自9世紀]
      He was perhaps the most famous scientist of the twentieth century.
      他可能是20世紀最負盛名的科學家。
      • 1774, Edward Long, The History of Jamaica. Or, General Survey of the Antient and Modern State of that Island, volume 2, book 2, chapter 7, 5:
        The building was erected in two years, at the parochial expence, on the foundation of the former one, which was irreparably damaged by the hurricane of Auguſt, 1712.
      • 1908, EF Benson, The Blotting Book:
        Thus, as he dressed, the thoughts and the rage of yesterday began to stir and move in his mind again.
      • 2003 August 20, Julian Borger, The Guardian:
        Within ten seconds, the citizens of New York, Cleveland, Detroit and Toronto were being given first-hand experience of what it was like to live in the nineteenth century.
    2. 經由產權、控制等而屬於(某地) [自9世紀]
      The owner of the nightclub was arrested.
      夜店店主遭到逮捕。
      • 1977 October 28, The Guardian:
        In a much-anticipated radio broadcast the Duke of Edinburgh said last night that Britain will be a grim place in the year 2000 [...].
      • 2001, Dictionary of National Biography, 2001, page 27:
        The third son, William John (1826-1902), was headmaster of the Boys' British School, Hitchin [...].
    3. 因具有某種特征而屬於(某物或某人);“屬格所有形”。(對於抽象名詞,和“主語所有格”有交叉。) [自13世紀]
      Keep the handle of the saucepan away from the flames.
      保持煮鍋的柄不靠近火焰。
      • 1933, Havelock Ellis, Psychology of Sex, volume 4:
        The breasts of young girls sometimes become tender at puberty in sympathy with the evolution of the sexual organs [...].
      • 2010 October 29, Marina Hyde, The Guardian:
        It amounts to knocking on the door of No 10 then running away.
  9. 組成“賓語所有格”。
    1. 接施事名詞、動名詞或動作名詞。 [自12世紀]
      She had a profound distrust of the police.
      她深深地不信任警方。
      • 1611, Bible, Authorized Version, Matthew IV:
        And he saith unto them, Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men.
      • 2000, Sheila Ruth, Issues in Feminism:
        Antifeminism has been a credible cover and an effective vehicle because the hatred of women is not politically anathema on either the Right or the Left.
  10. 表達性格或品格。
    1. (現在為古舊或書面) 連接形容詞與名詞/名詞短語,組成準狀語修飾詞至於關於 [自13世紀]
      My companion seemed affable and easy of manner.
      我的同伴看起來友善隨和。
      • 1917, Zane Gray, Wildfire, page 35:
        He was huge, raw-boned, knotty, long of body and long of leg, with the head of a war charger.
      • 2004 August 11, Sean Ingle, The Guardian:
        Still nimble of mind and fleet of foot, Morris buzzed here and there, linking well and getting stuck in at every opportunity.
    2. 表示品質或特征。 [自13世紀]
      Pooh was said to be a bear of very little brain.
      據說維尼熊是一頭不太聰明的熊。
      • 1891, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, The Boscombe Valley Mystery:
        His frank acceptance of the situation marks him as either an innocent man, or else as a man of considerable self-restraint and firmness.
      • 1951, Jacob Bronowski, The Common Sense of Science:
        No other man has made so deep a mark on his time and on our world unless he has been a man of action, a Cromwell or a Napoleon.
    3. 表示數量、年齡、價格等。 [自13世紀]
      We have been paying interest at a rate of 10%.
      我們的利率是10%。
      • 1903, Frank Norris, The Pit, Doubleday 1924, page 4:
        She was a tall young girl of about twenty-two or three, holding herself erect and with fine dignity.
      • 2006, Serway & Jewett, Principles of Physics, page 428:
        A police car, traveling southbound at a speed of 40.0 m/s, approaches with its siren producing sound at a frequency of 2 500 Hz.
    4. (美國, 非正式, 部分人認為是錯誤用法) 連接單數不定名詞(前接不定冠詞)和定語形容詞(由程度副詞修飾)。
      It's not that big of a deal.
      沒什麼大不了的。
      • 1990, Mary Crain, “The Social Construction of National Identity in Highland Ecuador”, in Anthropological Quarterly, 卷61, number 1, page 43:
        Such hegemonic projects often appropriate certain local traditions and re-inscribe them as "national," while dismissing other traditions which pose too great of a threat to the reproduction of the existing socio-political order.
      • 1998, Lyle McDonald, The Ketogenic Diet: A Complete Guide for the Dieter and Practitioner, page 98:
        For some individuals, even 1000 calories/day may be too great of a deficit.
      • 2017, Jean Reith Schroedel; Artour Aslanian, “A Case Study of Descriptive Representation: The Experience of Native American Elected Officials in South Dakota”, in American Indian Quarterly, 卷41, number 3, page 278:
        While it is quite obvious that the state continues to try and dilute the voting power of Native Americans, at least as big of a challenge is the need for mobilizing Native American voters.
  11. 表達時間點。
    1. (主要用於方言) ……的期間,現在多用於重複或常規的事情。 [自9世紀]
      Of an evening, we would often go for a stroll along the river.
      晚上我們經常沿著河邊散步。
      • Template:RQ:Dickens TTG
        For, sometimes of an afternoon when Miss Pupford has been reading the paper through her little gold eye-glass[...]she has become agitated [...].
      • 1897, Henry James, What Maisie Knew:
        If there was a type Ida despised, Sir Claude communicated to Maisie, it was the man who pottered about town of a Sunday [...].
    2. (英國方言, 主要用於否定句) 表示時間的長度。 [自13世紀]
      I've not tekken her out of a goodly long while.
      我帶她出來沒多久。
    3. (名詞後) 表示狀態、活動等的持續時間。 [自18世紀]
      After a delay of three hours, the plane finally took off.
      在延誤三小時過後,飛機終於起飛。
      • 2011 March 2, Grant McCabe, The Sun:
        The cab driver's claim he was sleepwalking during the attack has already been supported by his wife of 37 years.
使用說明[编辑]
  • (屬於): 對於人,一般會直接用所有格形式。
  • (組成,製成): of 可以直接與動詞或形容詞短語連用。
  • 現代英語逐漸少用 of 修飾名詞,轉用名詞 + 名詞的結構。對比 part of speech (詞類)(16世紀) vs. word class (詞類)(20世紀),Federal Bureau of Investigation(“聯邦調查局”,1908年) vs. Central Intelligence Agency(“中央情報局”,1947年),affairs of the world(18世紀) vs. world affairs(“國際事務”,20世紀)。
  • of 連接名詞和被某些副詞修飾的定語形容詞時,可以被省略。這個用法中可用的副詞包括toosohowasmorelessthisthat
衍生詞[编辑]
相關詞[编辑]

參見[编辑]

詞源2[编辑]

/əv/的拼寫,受到詞源1的影響。

動詞[编辑]

of

  1. (一般用於表示完成時之義) have視覺方言拼法’ve 的視覺方言,一般用於表示口語。
    • 1926, F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby, Penguin 2000, page 33:
      "I had a woman up here last week to look at my feet, and when she have been the bill you'd of thought she had my appendicitus out."
    • 1943, Raymond Chandler, The High Window, Penguin 2005, page 87:
      ‘You must of left your door unlocked. Or even open.’
    • 1992, Neal Stephenson, Snow Crash, Bantam Spectra, page 340:
      "You couldn't of known," Livio says.

延伸閱讀[编辑]

回文構詞[编辑]


南非語[编辑]

詞源[编辑]

源自荷蘭語 of,源自中古荷蘭語 ofofte

發音[编辑]

連詞[编辑]

of

  1. 或者
  2. 是否

荷蘭語[编辑]

詞源[编辑]

來自中古荷蘭語 ofofte。中古荷蘭語中此二詞合併;of 派生自古荷蘭語 of,源自原始日耳曼語 *jabai

發音[编辑]

連詞[编辑]

of

  1. (並列連詞) 或者
    Wil je thee, of heb je liever koffie?
    你想喝茶還是喝咖啡?
  2. (從屬連詞) 是否
    Ik weet niet of dat wel zo'n goed idee is.
    我不知道這是不是個好主意。
  3. (of ... of) 要麼……要麼……
    Je kan kiezen: of je bent stil, of je vertrekt.
    給你兩個選擇:要麼閉嘴,要麼滾。
  4. (of ... of dat) ……還是……
    Ik weet niet of ik moet vertrekken of dat ik het haar moet uitleggen.
    我不知道該走還是該給她解釋。

衍生詞[编辑]

派生詞[编辑]

  • 南非語: of
  • 澤西荷蘭語: ov, of
  • Negerhollands: of
  • 帕皮阿門托語: òf, of

德國低地德語[编辑]

詞源1[编辑]

來自中古低地德語 af,來自古撒克遜語 af,來自原始西日耳曼語 *ab,來自原始日耳曼語 *ab。參見off

介詞[编辑]

of

副詞[编辑]

of

形容詞[编辑]

of

  1. 著的

詞源2[编辑]

來自古撒克遜語 eftha

連詞[编辑]

of

  1. àder 的另一種寫法

冰島語[编辑]

詞源[编辑]

來自古諾爾斯語 [Term?],來自原始日耳曼語 *uber。原始完整形見於前綴形式ofur- (非常)。與yfir (在上方)ofan (從上方)有關。

發音[编辑]

副詞[编辑]

of

  1. Ég er of falleg.
    我真是漂亮了。(女性用語)
    Ég er of fallegur.
    我真是漂亮了。(男性用語)

日語[编辑]

詞源[编辑]

來自英語 ofX of X 中的 of)。

發音[编辑]

助詞[编辑]

of(オブ) (obu

  1. (非正式) 用於表示範例、典型。
    (ゆう)(しゃ)オブ(ゆう)(しゃ)の○○さん
    yūsha obu yūsha no ○○ san
    勇者中的勇者,XX
    キモいof(オブ)キモい
    kimoi obu kimoi
    極其惡心
    (字面意思為“惡心中的惡心”)

參見[编辑]

  • (za, 功能相似, 字面意思為the)

盧森堡語[编辑]

替代寫法[编辑]

  • af, uef (兩者皆方言)

詞源[编辑]

源自中古高地德語 afave,源自古高地德語 avaaba的北部變體,源自原始日耳曼語 *ab。與德語 ab荷蘭語 af英語 ofoff同源。規則變化本應作af (< af) 和 uef (< ave)。of 的詞形可能是兩種詞形的折中;若非如此,則可能來自不規則長音形 中古高地德語 *āf*āve

發音[编辑]

副詞[编辑]

of

  1. (一般用於複合詞)

中古荷蘭語[编辑]

詞源1[编辑]

來自古荷蘭語 of

連詞[编辑]

of

  1. 是否
用法說明[编辑]

有時會與ofte混淆。

派生詞[编辑]
  • 荷蘭語: of
  • 林堡語: óf

詞源2[编辑]

副詞[编辑]

of

  1. af 的另一種寫法

延伸閱讀[编辑]


中古英語[编辑]

詞源1[编辑]

來自古英語 ofafæf (從,離)的非重讀形式,源自原始西日耳曼語 *ab,源自原始日耳曼語 *ab (遠,離)

介詞[编辑]

of

  1. 參見英語章節的義項。
    • c. 1400, Geoffrey Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales, General Prologue, lines 1-3:
      Whan that Aprill, with his shoures soote
      The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
      四月甘霖降下
      驅散三月根系忍受的乾旱
替代寫法[编辑]
派生語彙[编辑]
  • 英語: of
  • 低地蘇格蘭語: o
  • 約拉語: af

來源[编辑]

詞源2[编辑]

來自古英語 æf

副詞[编辑]

of

替代寫法[编辑]
派生語彙[编辑]
  • 英語: off
  • 低地蘇格蘭語: aff

來源[编辑]

詞源3[编辑]

oth的變體,來自古英語

連詞[编辑]

of

  1. 直到
替代寫法[编辑]

來源[编辑]

詞源4[编辑]

thofthough的變體)的詞首音脫落,源自古英語 þēah

連詞[编辑]

of

  1. 然而雖然

來源[编辑]


古荷蘭語[编辑]

詞源[编辑]

(此詞的語源缺失或不完整。請協助添加,或在茶室進行討論。)

連詞[编辑]

of

  1. 是否

派生語彙[编辑]

  • 中古荷蘭語: of

延伸閱讀[编辑]

  • of”, Oudnederlands Woordenboek [古荷蘭語詞典], 2012

古英語[编辑]

詞源[编辑]

æf的無重音讀法。

發音[编辑]

介詞[编辑]

of [+與格]

  1. Hē is of þām ilcan wīċe swā iċ.
    他和我來自同一個村莊。
  2. Of þām ǣġe crēap ān lȳtel and swīðe hungriġ trēowwyrm.
    一隻非常飢餓的小毛蟲走卵殼。
    • The Life of Saint Margaret
      Iċ nylle nān word mā of þīnum mūðe ġehīeran.
      我不想再從你嘴裡聽到任何詞。
    • 10世紀晚期, Ælfric, On the Seasons of the Year
      Swā swā fiscas cwelaþ gif hīe of wætre bēoþ, swā ēac cwileþ ǣlċ eorðliċ līchama gif hē biþ þǣre lyfte bedǣled.
      就像魚離開水會死,陸上的動物沒有空氣也無法活。
    • 10世紀晚期, Ælfric, Esther
      Sē cyning slīepte his bēag of.
      國王把他的指環滑落了。
  3. (表示作品的製作者)

使用 注意[编辑]

  • 雖然本詞也是現代英語“of”的來源,不過古英語中沒有這種現代英語的表達,在盎格魯-薩克遜語中一般會用屬格:
    Dēaðes god man sċeal ofslēan and mann undēadlīcne dōn(“必須要殺掉死神,讓人類永生”;現代英語作“The god of death must be killed and man made immortal”)。
    Iċ hine huntiġe oþ eorðan endas(“我會追殺他直到天涯海角”;現代英語作“I'll hunt him to the ends of the Earth”)。
  • 有時翻譯成現代英語的“of”,其原義也是“從”或“出、離”:
    sē weall is ġeworht of tiġelan and eorþteorwe(“墻是用磚和瀝青做的”;現代英語作“the wall is made of brick and asphalt”)。
    Sē Hǣlend sċolde bēon of fǣmnan ġeboren(“據說是一名處女生下了耶穌”;現代英語作“Jesus was supposedly born of a virgin”)。
  • of 在古英語中不表達現代英語的“about”之義。“講起”(think of)、“說起”(speak of)一類的短語會用beymb
  • 表示“出於”某種感情而做事,一般用for
    Þætte for lufum ġedōn biþ þæt ġewierþ simle beġeondan gōde and yfele(“出於愛所做的是往往會超越善惡”;現代英語作“What is done out of love always takes place beyond good and evil”)。

派生詞[编辑]

  • 中古英語: of
    • 低地蘇格蘭語: o
    • 英語: of

古諾爾斯語[编辑]

介詞[编辑]

of

  1. 在……之

來源[编辑]

  • (+ 賓格) of in Geir T. Zoëga (1910) A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Oxford: Clarendon Press

古撒克遜語[编辑]

詞源[编辑]

af的無重音形式。

介詞[编辑]

of

  1. 在……之

羅馬尼亞語[编辑]

感嘆詞[编辑]

of

  1. 表示痛苦,後悔。
  2. 表示絕望。
  3. 表示厭惡,憎恨
  4. 表示讚賞,熱情。
  5. 表示驚訝

土耳其語[编辑]

感嘆詞[编辑]

of

  1. 表示勞累,有壓力。
  2. 表示痛苦。
  3. 表示厭惡或極其沮喪。

沃拉普克語[编辑]

代詞[编辑]

of(複數 ofs

  1. (第三人稱)

變格[编辑]

Template:Vo-decl-pronoun


威爾斯語[编辑]

名詞[编辑]

of

  1. gof 的軟音異變

輔音變化[编辑]

輔音變化
原型 濁化 鼻音化 清音化
gof of ngof 無變化
注意:有些形式僅是推測,不是每種形式都一定存在。

西弗里斯蘭語[编辑]

詞源[编辑]

來自古弗里斯蘭語 jef,來自原始日耳曼語 *jabai

發音[编辑]

連詞[编辑]

of

延伸閱讀[编辑]

  • of”, Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal, 2011