have

維基詞典,自由的多語言詞典
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  另见: hâve

英语[编辑]

词源[编辑]

中古英语 haven < 古英语 habban(有) < 原始日耳曼语 xaƀēnan(对比:西弗里斯兰语 ha、荷兰语 hebben、德语 haben、瑞典语 hava/ha),*xafjanan(举起)(现代英语:heave)的持续体。
原始日耳曼语 *xafjanan < 原始印欧语 *kap-(对比:古爱尔兰语 cáin(规则、贡品)、cacht(犯人);拉丁语 capiō(拿);拉脱维亚语 kàmpt(夺);阿尔巴尼亚语 kap((我)抓);古希腊语 κάπτω (káptō)(吞下)、κώπη (kṓpē)(柄))。


发音



  • 英式发音:
  • 押韵:-æv


动词

to have(第三人称单数简单现在时 has, 现在分词 having, 简单过去时和过去分词 had

[古]:第三人称单数简单现在时 hath, 第二人称单数现在时 hast, 第二人称复数过去时 hadst


  1. [及物]有,拥有,持有
    I have a house and a car. 我有一栋房子和一辆车。
    Look what I have herea frog I found on the street! 看我这里有什么——一只我在街上发现的青蛙!
  2. [及物](表示关系)有
    I have two elder sisters. 我有两个姐姐。
    The dog down the street has a lax owner. 街上那条狗的主人很不负责。
  3. [及物](表示动作)吃、喝、行动
    I have breakfast at six o'clock. 我在六点吃早饭。
    Can I have a look at that? 我能看一下吗? (注:have a look 为固定短语,等于 look。)
    I'm going to have some pizza and some Pepsi right now. 我现在要去吃比萨和喝百事可乐。
  4. [助动词](与过去分词连用构成完成时,表示动作完成)做过…
    I have already eaten today.  我今天吃过了。
    I had already eaten. 我(当时)吃过了。
  5. [助动词](have to,后接不定式)必须,要,应当
    I have to go. 我该走了。
  6. [及物]分娩,生,怀孕
    The couple always wanted to have children. 那对夫妇总是想多生孩子。
    My wife is having the baby right now! 我妻子已经怀孕了。
  7. [及物]做爱
    He's always bragging about how many women he's had. 他总是爱炫耀说与他做过爱的女人有多少多少。
  8. [及物,与不定式连用]要求…干某事,命令,使…,请求
    They had me feed their dog while they were out of town. 他们让我在他们不在(城镇)的时候帮他们喂狗。
  9. [及物,与形容词或形容词短语补语连用]致使,导致,使得…,让…
    She had him arrested for trespassing. 她使他因犯下侵入财产罪而被捕。
    The movie's ending had the entire audience in tears. 电影的结局让全场观众流泪。
  10. [及物,与不定式连用]使处于…状态,遇上,碰到
    The hospital had several patients contract pneumonia last week. 上周有几名病人在(这所)医院染上肺炎。
    I've had three people today tell me my hair looks nice. 今天已经有三个人告诉我说我头型很好看。
  11. [及物,与形容词或形容词短语补语连用]描述…,称…处于某种状态
    Their stories differed; he said he'd been at work when the incident occurred, but her statement had him at home that entire evening. 他们两人的叙述不吻合:他说他在事件发生时是在上班,但她却说他当天晚上是一直在家的。
  12. [疑问助动词](后接代词构成附加问句,见下面的用法说明)是吧?对吧?
    We haven't eaten dinner yet, have we? 我们还没吃晚饭呢,对吧?
    Your wife hasn't been reading that nonsense, has she? 你妻子没在读那无聊(胡扯八道)的东西吧?
    [英]He has some money, hasn't he? 他有钱的,对吧?
  13. [英](在争斗中)战胜,打败
    I could have him! 我本可以打败他的!
  14. [爱尔兰]讲…语言
    I have no German. 我不会讲德语。


变位[编辑]

have 为不规则动词。下表中标注的是(美式)英语重读发音。

不定式 to have
命令式 have
现在分词 having
过去分词 had
现在直陈式 过去直陈式 将来直陈式 现在虚拟式 过去虚拟式 将来虚拟式 条件虚拟式
第一人称单数(I) have had shall / will have have had were to have would have
第二人称单数(you) have had will have have had were to have would have
第三人称单数(he/she/it) has had will have have had were to have would have
第一人称复数(we) have had shall / will have have had were to have would have
第二人称复数(you) have had will have have had were to have would have
第三人称复数(they) have had will have have had were to have would have


疑问助动词的用法说明[编辑]

疑问助动词 have ...?(第三人称单数 has ...?, 第三人称单数否定式 hasn't ...?has ... not?, 其他单复数人称否定式 haven't ...?have ... not?), 省略号代表人称代词。

  • 用法:后接代词构成附加问句。用在使用 have 构成完成时的陈述句后。英式英语中也可用在现在时态使用 have 的陈述句后。
    We haven't eaten dinner yet, have we? 我们还没吃过晚饭呢,对吧?
    Your wife hasn't been reading that nonsense, has she? 你妻子没在读那胡扯的东西吧?
    I'd bet that student hasn't studied yet, has he? 那个学生肯定还没学习呢,对吧?
    You've known all along, haven't you? 你是一直知道的,对吧?
    The sun has already set, has it not? 太阳已经落下去了吧。
    [英]He has some money, hasn't he? 他有钱的,对吧?
  • 这种句型可以将现在完成时的陈述句转变为问句。附加问句部分需要用宾语代词代替主语。对于否定句来说,附加问句中使用的是 hashave,根据陈述句中的数而变化。肯定句中可以用后加 not 或者使用 hasn'thaven't 的方法构成附加问句。
  • 美式英语中,不可以用这种方法构成 have 用作非助动词的陈述句和含 have got 的陈述句的问句形式。这些情况下需要用 does 或其否定形式构成附加问句(注意这种结构在英式英语中是不正确的)。例:
    He has some money, doesn't he? 他有钱的,对吧?
    I have got enough time, don't I? 我有足够的时间,对吧?


派生词组[编辑]




丹麦语

词源(一)[编辑]

< 古诺尔斯语 hagi


名词[编辑]

n. have)(单数定形 haven,复数不定形 haver

  1. 花园,果园,种菜的小块土地


词源(二)[编辑]

古诺尔斯语 hafa


动词[编辑]

v. have(命令式 hav,不定式 at have,现在时 har,过去时 havde,过去分词 har haft

  1. Jeg har en veninde. 我有一个女朋友。


词源(三)[编辑]

见丹麦语 hav


名词[编辑]

  1. hav 的不定复数形