stifle

維基詞典,自由的多語言詞典
參見:štifle

英语[编辑]

发音[编辑]

词源 1[编辑]

动词派生自晚期中古英語 stuflen (因炎热而难以呼吸;淹水,因呛水窒息) [以及其他形式][1]之后词源不详,可能源自stuffen (通过窒息杀死;因闷热窒息;压制,灭杀;剥夺植物的生长条件) + -el- (动词的衍生性中缀,可能意指指小,程度增强或反复性动作和事件)[2] stuffen派生自古法語 estoferestouffer (使...窒息,勒死;(比喻义)压制,抑制) [以及其他形式](现代法語 étouffer),[3][4]变换自estoperestuper (阻塞;绷紧,使...变厚)(现代法語 étouper (填补)),受到了estofer (给...装垫子)(现代法語 étoffer)的影响。estoper派生自通俗拉丁語 *stuppāre,源自拉丁語 stuppa (粗亚麻)(作为填塞材料,源自古希臘語 στύπη (stúpē)στύππη (stúppē)(对比στυππεῖον (stuppeîon)),可能源自前希臘語 )+ -āre。据《牛津英语词典》,其派生自古諾爾斯語 stífla (筑坝;阻塞)的说法“在词形和词义方面难有说服力”。[4]

名词派生自动词。[5]

动词[编辑]

stifle (第三人稱單數簡單現在時 stifles,現在分詞 stifling,一般過去時及過去分詞 stifled)

  1. (及物, 亦比喻义) 使...窒息;将...闷死
    近義詞: smothersuffocate
  2. (及物, 夸张) 使...呼吸困难
    The heat was stifling the children.
    炎热孩子们呼吸困难
  3. (及物, 亦比喻义) 忍住
  4. (及物) 阻挡住...的声音
  5. (及物, 比喻义)
    1. (及物) 压制压抑抑制镇压
      近義詞: hinderrestrainsmothersuppressthrottlerepress
      The army stifled the rebellion.
      军队镇压了叛乱。
      • 1723, Daniel Waterland, A Second Vindication of Christ's Divinity:
        I desire only to have things fairly represented as they really are; no evidence smothered or stifled.
        (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
      • Template:RQ:Maxwell Mirror and the Lamp
      • 2011年10月29日,Neil Johnston,“Norwich 3-3 Blackburn”,出自 BBC Sport:
        In fact, there was no suggestion of that, although Wolves deployed men behind the ball to stifle the league leaders in a first-half that proved very frustrating for City.
        (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    2. (及物) 封锁查禁隐匿隐瞒
  6. (及物, 農業(养蚕)) 用蒸汽熏 (蚕茧)
  7. (不及物) 窒息死亡
    Two firemen tragically stifled in yesterday’s fire when trying to rescue an old lady from her bedroom.
    两名消防员在试图将一位老太太从卧室中营救出来时因窒息壮烈牺牲。
  8. (不及物, 夸张) 呼吸困难
    The heat felt stifling.
    炎热喘不过气
其他形式[编辑]
衍生词汇[编辑]
参见[编辑]

名词[编辑]

stifle (複數 stifles)

  1. (罕用) (动词词义的名词形式)窒息;呼吸困难;压制抑制等

词源 2[编辑]

The stifle (sense 1) is indicated as number 27 in this drawing of a horse.[n 1]
A dog’s stifle (sense 1) is indicated as number 12 in the above illustration.

名词派生自中古英語 stifle (四足动物的股骨和胫骨之间的关节) [以及其他形式],之后词源不详,可能派生自盎格魯-諾曼語 estive ()古法語 estive ()(对比古法語 estival (靴,鞋))。[6]

动词派生自名词。[7]

名词[编辑]

stifle (複數 stifles)

  1. (zootomy) (动物的)后腿关节
    近義詞: stifle joint
  2. (獸醫學) 后腿膝关节疾病
衍生词汇[编辑]

动词[编辑]

stifle (第三人稱單數簡單現在時 stifles,現在分詞 stifling,一般過去時及過去分詞 stifled)

  1. (及物) 使...的后腿膝关节挫伤脱臼等 (动物)
衍生词汇[编辑]

注释[编辑]

  1. 源自C[harles] J[ames] Korinek; A[lbie] W[illiam] Korinek (1915), “Diseases of the Horse: Cause, Symptoms and Treatment”, Diseases of Domestic Animals and Poultry: Their Cause, Symptoms and Treatment, Portland, Or.: Korinek Remedy Company, OCLC 17424821, 页10

参考资料[编辑]

  1. stuflen, v.” in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  2. -el-, suf.(3)” in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  3. stuffen, v.(2)” in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  4. 4.0 4.1 stifle, v.1”, OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, December 2020; “stifle1, v.”, Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  5. stifle, n.2”, OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, December 2020
  6. stifle, n.(1)” in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.; compare “stifle, n.1”, OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, December 2020: “Of obscure origin”; “stifle1, n.”, Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  7. stifle, v.2”, OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, March 2021

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