nigger

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英语[编辑]

英語維基百科有一篇文章關於:

其他形式[编辑]

词源[编辑]

可能直接源自法語 nègre西班牙語葡萄牙語 negro (非洲黑人),最终源自拉丁語 niger (黑色的)。比较丹麥語 nigger瑞典語 nigger德語 Nigger荷蘭語 nikkernegronoir同源對似詞

发音[编辑]

  • (正统英式(RP)) 英語發音nĭgʹərIPA(幫助)/ˈnɪɡə(ɹ)/
  • (通用美式) 英語發音nĭgʹərIPA(幫助)/ˈnɪɡɚ/
  • 文檔
  • 韻部:-ɪɡə(ɹ)

名词[编辑]

1860年的政治漫畫

nigger(复数 niggers,阴性形式 niggeress

  1. (冒犯, 种族蔑称, 粗俗, 参见用法说明) 黑鬼尼哥(非洲裔)
    • Template:RQ:Twain Huckleberry Finn
    • 1929, Hemingway, Ernest, A Farewell to Arms[3], New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, page 274:
      “Othello with his occupation gone,” she teased. “Othello was a nigger,” I said.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 2004, Hotel Rwanda, 台词角色Colonel Oliver (Nick Nolte):
      You are not even a nigger, you are an African.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 1996, Chris Rock: Bring the Pain[4]:
      There's black people, and there's niggers. And niggers have got to go. Every time black people wanna have a good time, ign'ant-ass niggers fuck it up.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 2008, Greydon Square (作曲), “The N Word”, in The CPT Theorem:
      See, niggers are followers, blacks normally lead. / Niggers call blacks "whitewash" soon as they on the scene.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 2010年4月13日, Kitty Kelley, quoting an unnamed town resident, Oprah: A Biography, New York, N.Y.: Crown, →ISBN, OL 24087304M, page 193:
      Blacks stayed at home during the civil rights march. Niggers are the ones that marched.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
  2. (冒犯, 种族蔑称, 粗俗, 参见用法说明) 黑鬼(属于任何皮肤通常为黑色的民族的人)
  3. (非洲裔美国人白话英语) 兄弟老哥
    • 2002年1月13日, Earl Ofari Hutchinson, “"Loaded Language", a review of Nigger: The Strange Career of a Troublesome Word by Randall Kennedy”, in Washington Post, page BW06:
      I had overheard him greet a buddy who called him on the phone with "Yo, nigger, what's up?"
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
  4. (非洲裔美国人白话英语) 朋友友仔
    • 1997, McKinley Lee, Chosen by Fate: My Life inside Death Row Records, →ISBN:
      “Snoop Dog!” one of them yelled. “That’s my nigga from Long Beach, man.”
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 2001 Autumn-Winter, Awad Ibrahim, quoting ‘Sam’, “Hey, whadap homeboy?”, in Taboo[6], page 94:
      I wonna say whassup to all my Niggers, you know, peace and one love.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
  5. (现已冒犯) 黑色皮肤的动物:
    1. (现已冒犯) 三尖鱾Girella tricuspidata
    2. (现已冒犯, 過時) 深褐色的蛱蝶科蝴蝶(Orsotriaena medus,南亚,东南亚和澳大利亚)
      • 1932, Gustavus Athol Waterhouse, What Butterfly is That?: A Guide to the Butterflies of Australia, page 112:
        Nigger (Male) Orsotriaena medus moira Waterhouse and Lyell. 1914.
        (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
      • 2010, Khew Sin Khoon, A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Singapore, page 69:
        The Nigger is a common butterfly in Singapore and can be found in the company of bush browns.
        (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    3. (英國, 康沃尔, 渔业, 古旧) 一种海参(Holothuria forskali
    4. (古旧) 芜菁叶蜂的幼虫(农业害虫)
      • 1873, Nature, 卷7, page 448:
        To this group belongs the nigger, or black caterpillar of the turnip, which is often in sufficient numbers to do much mischief.
        (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
  6. (古旧, 电力) 电导体包裹层中会导致部分短路的杂质
    • 1892, Western Electrician, 卷11, page 72:
      Now to locate the portion of the machine which contains the "nigger."
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
  7. (古旧, 美国) (一些密西西比河船只上的)蒸汽起锚机
    • 1983, Goldenseal, 卷9, page 20:
      Well, it's a big heavy line, and you operate the nigger — capstan it's also called — by steam. You wrap your line around that and keep taking in the slack, and that draws up them things.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
  8. (电影, 古旧) 黑幕
    • 1961, Peter Snow, Electronic Flashlight Photography (page 114)
      Care should be taken to check visually from the position occupied by the subject and from the camera also, to ascertain that the nigger is positioned correctly and does not obstruct the picture area.

用法说明[编辑]

  • “nigger”被认为是英语中冒犯意最强的词语之一。在Kristy Beers Fägersten于2007年的一项研究中,佛罗里达大学的本科生给12个英语贬义词打分(1分为“不冒犯”,10分为“非常冒犯”)时,参与者给nigger的分最高,几乎比第二高的词cunt高两分,。[1]新西兰的广播标准机构在2010年和2013年分别进行了两次调研后得出nigger是新西兰第二名最具冒犯意的词(第一名为cunt),两次调查显示这个词会冒犯66%和65%的调查参与人[2][3],几个英国广播组织开展的一项调查也显示“nigger”会冒犯68%的英国人,排在第5位(前面的词分别为cuntmotherfuckerfuckwanker)。[4]
  • 一些非洲裔曾尝试为这个词辩白(特别是形式nigga),但是惹起了争议,一些人认为由于其历史阴暗,加之现在仍有贬义使用,这个词不能够被辩白。[5]无论如何,非黑人使用这个词仍旧带有极强的冒犯意。
  • “nigger”暗含极强的贬义色彩,不仅是蔑视性地称呼人皮肤黑,还暗指他们缺乏智力,长期无业,是社会蛀虫,毒品成瘾,倾向于犯罪等。[6]而且它还和白人殖民非洲、奴役黑人和非洲裔美国人有关。
  • 为了减轻其冒犯意,指代这个词时或者在直接引语中审查掉这个词时会用“n-word”。

近义词[编辑]

衍生词汇[编辑]

相关词汇[编辑]

动词[编辑]

nigger(第三人稱單數簡單式 niggers,現在分詞 niggering,一般過去時及過去分詞 niggered

  1. (及物, 過時) 不施肥而使土质越来越差
  2. (不及物, 冒犯) 做出黑人刻板印象中的行径
    • 1989, Reynolds Price, The surface of earth, Ballantine Books, page 120:
      His father said, “Niggering, I was niggering about. You knew that surely.”
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 2007, George Hovis, Vale of Humility: Plain Folk in Contemporary North Carolina Fiction, Univ of South Carolina Press, page 86:
      Forrest’s rediscovery of his father coincides with his discovery that old Robinson’s “niggering around” produced at least one child of mixed race.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 2008, Joe Ambrose, Gimme Danger: The Story Of Iggy Pop, Music Sales Group:
      I mean he was niggering. Niggering out, grabbing at my leg and microphone cord. I said, ‘Stop that you damn nigger!’ and that takes guts!
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
  3. (不常用, 及物, 冒犯) 蔑视
    • 1997年1月18日, Joe Frisch, “Anglo-US relations under a Blair Government”, in uk.org.mensa, Usenet[7]:
      The gated community is a powerful tool in the systematic and sustained niggering of local 3rd-world communities - namely, in the book, the Hispanic (mostly wetbacK[sic]) community
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 1999年12月3日, Jeff Welch, “Who is McGuyver and why was he "niggered?”, in seattle.general, December 3, Usenet[8]:
      > He is on TV saying that he was "abused" by the police and treated like a nigger.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 2003年7月16日, “Mob Attacks Palestinian Pollsters Who Told The Truth”, in soc.retirement, Usenet:
      Why would many Paletinians want to return to a land where they would be "niggered" for the benefit of the Israelis as the present Palestinian population is
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)

参考[编辑]

  1. Kristy Beers Fägersten (2007), “A sociolinguistic analysis of swear word offensiveness”, Saarland Working Papers in Linguistics (SWPL)[1], Högskolan Dalarna (Dalarna University), Sweden, 页14-37
  2. What Not to Swear: The Acceptability of Words in Broadcasting
  3. What Not to Swear: The Acceptability of Words in Broadcasting, 2013
  4. "Delete expletives?"
  5. Rachel Higson (September 28, 2017), “Considering the N-Word: To Reject or Reclaim?”, The Prindle Post[2], DePauw, Indiana: The Janet Prindle Institute for Ethics at DePauw University
  6. Template:Projectlink/pedia

异序词[编辑]