cringe

維基詞典,自由的多語言詞典

英语[编辑]

词源[编辑]

A former nun working as a prostitute cringes (sense 1) in terror and remorse before Clement, a Dominican friar, who seeks to help her return to the convent, an episode from Charles Reade’s novel The Cloister and the Hearth (1861).
一个曾是修女的的妓女因恐惧和悔恨而畏缩(词义1)于墙角,其面前是Clement,一个多明我会的修士,其正试图帮助前者返回女修道院。出自Charles Reade所著的一本小说The Cloister and the Hearth(1861年)。[n 1]

动词派生自中古英語 crengen (高傲地俯身,屈尊) [以及其他形式][1]源自古英語 *crenċan*crenċġan*crengan (使...倒下,使翻转)crinċġan (屈服;畏缩;倒下;死亡)的使役动词,[2]源自原始日耳曼語 *krangijaną (使倒下),源自原始日耳曼語 *kringaną*krinkaną (倒下;翻转;屈服)(源自原始印歐語 *grenǵʰ- (翻转))+ *-janą (从强变化动词构成“导致某人某物做某事”一意的使役动词)。英语词与丹麥語 krænge (翻出内侧,使...外翻)荷蘭語 krengen (猛然转向)低地蘇格蘭語 crengecreengecreingecrienge (畏缩,耸肩)瑞典語 kränga (猛然转向;猛然前倾;掷)西弗里斯蘭語 kringe (捏;戳;推;坚持,催促)同源,且是crinkle同源對似詞

名词[3]和形容词派生自动词。

发音[编辑]

动词[编辑]

cringe (第三人稱單數簡單現在時 cringes, 現在分詞 cringing, 一般過去時及過去分詞 cringed)

  1. (不及物) 畏缩退缩
    He cringed as the bird collided with the window.
    那只鸟撞到窗子上,让他[吓得]缩了一下身子
    • Template:RQ:Bunyan Pilgrim's Progress
    • Template:RQ:Melville Moby-Dick
    • 1860, [John B. Newman], “The Combat”, 出自 Wa-Wa-Wanda: A Legend of Old Orange, New York, N.Y.: Rudd & Carleton, [], →OCLC頁號 28:
      Here the angel ceased, and frowning, / Hurled his heavy gauntlet at him; / Hurled, as best he could, the creature, / Cringing as the Serpent cringeth, / Coiled, and with his crest uplifted; / And then prone upon his belly, / Crawled away upon his belly, [...]
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • Template:RQ:London Jerry
  2. (不及物,比喻義) 畏惧恐惧恶心(引申義)十分尴尬
  3. (不及物)卑微地)躬身蹲伏卑躬屈膝
    • 1624, Democritus Junior [pseudonym; Robert Burton], “Loue of Learning; or Ouer-much Study. With a Digression of the Misery of Schollers, and Why the Muses are Melancholy.”, 出自 The Anatomy of Melancholy: [], 2nd版, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Printed by John Lichfield and James Short, for Henry Cripps, →OCLC, partition 1, section 2, member 3, subsection 15,頁號 113:
      [I]f they keepe their wits, yet they are accompted fooles by reaſon of their carriage, becauſe they cannot ride a horſe, which euery Clowne can doe; ſalute and court a Gentlewoman, carue at table, cringe and make congies, which euery common ſwaſher can doe, [...]
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 1667, John Milton, “Book IV”, 出自 Paradise Lost. A Poem Written in Ten Books, London: [] [Samuel Simmons], [], →OCLC; 再版為 Paradise Lost in Ten Books: [], London: Basil Montagu Pickering [], 1873, →OCLC,行號s 958–961:
      And thou ſly hypocrite, who now wouldſt ſeem / Patron of liberty, who more then thou / Once fawn'd,and cring'd, and ſervilly ador'd / Heav'ns awful Monarch?
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 1846, Thomas Cooper, “To the Countess of Blessington”, 出自 The Baron’s Yule Feast: A Christmas-rhyme, London: Jeremiah How, [], →OCLC:
      Lady, receive a tributary lay / 源自one who cringeth not to titled state / Conventional, and lacking will to prate / Of comeliness— [...]
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 1891, Edgar Fawcett, “How a Queen Loved”, 出自 Songs of Doubt and Dream: (Poems), New York, N.Y., Toronto, Ont.: Funk & Wagnalls, →OCLC, stanza I,頁號 155:
      Humbly thou cringest that with nod of head / Couldst fling me seaward from they steepest cliffs!
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • Template:RQ:London Faith of Men
    • Template:RQ:Du Bois Souls of Black Folk
  4. (不及物,比喻義) 献媚拍马屁卑躬屈膝
  5. (及物,棄用) 将...拉近(身体部位)皱起()
  6. (及物,棄用) 对...点头哈腰;(点头哈腰地)陪同

变位[编辑]

其他形式[编辑]

衍生词汇[编辑]

参见[编辑]

名词[编辑]

cringe (可數 不可數, 複數 cringes)

  1. (可數) 畏缩退缩
    He glanced with a cringe at the mess on his desk.
    怯生生地瞥了一眼桌上乱七八糟的东西。
  2. (可數,比喻義) 卑躬屈膝
  3. (可數,英國,方言) 抽筋痉挛
  4. (不可數,俚語) 尴尬
    There was so much cringe in that episode!
    那一集也太了。

形容词[编辑]

cringe (比較級 more cringe, 最高級 most cringe)

  1. (俚語) 令人尴尬(指让人尴尬到不适的)
    近義詞: cringemakingcringeworthycringybasedcringy
    反義詞: (网络用语) based

注释[编辑]

  1. From Charles Reade (1861), XXXIII, The Cloister and the Hearth: A Tale of the Middle Ages, 卷II (The Autobiography of a Thief), illustrated library版, Boston, Mass.; New York, N.Y.: Colonial Press Company, 出版于c. 1900, OCLC 247436795, illustration between pages 312 and 313.

参考资料[编辑]

  1. crenǧen, v.” in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  2. 对比“cringe, v.”, OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, November 2010; “cringe, v.”, Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  3. cringe, n.”, OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, November 2010; “cringe, n.”, Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.

异序词[编辑]

意大利语[编辑]

词源[编辑]

借自英語 cringe

名词[编辑]

cringe m (無屈折)

  1. (新詞) 尴尬

波兰语[编辑]

词源[编辑]

非同化借詞,源自英語 cringe

发音[编辑]

名词[编辑]

cringe m 無生

  1. (俚語) 尴尬
    近義詞: obciachprzypałsiara

变格[编辑]

延伸阅读[编辑]

  • 參見cringeWielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN 中的內容
  • 參見波蘭語詞典PWN上有關cringe的內容

西班牙语[编辑]

词源[编辑]

借自英語 cringe

名词[编辑]

cringe m (複數 cringe)

  1. (新詞) 尴尬

形容词[编辑]

cringe (無屈折)

  1. (新詞) 令人尴尬的