cringe

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英语[编辑]

词源[编辑]

A former nun working as a prostitute cringes (sense 1) in terror and remorse before Clement, a Dominican friar, who seeks to help her return to the convent, an episode from Charles Reade’s novel The Cloister and the Hearth (1861).
一个曾是修女的的妓女因恐惧和悔恨而畏缩(词义1)于墙角,其面前是Clement,一个多明我会的修士,其正试图帮助前者返回女修道院。出自Charles Reade所著的一本小说The Cloister and the Hearth(1861年)。[n 1]

动词派生自中古英語 crengen (高傲地俯身,屈尊) [以及其他形式][1]源自古英語 *crenċan*crenċġan*crengan (使...倒下,使翻转)crinċġan (屈服;畏缩;倒下;死亡)的使役动词,[2]源自原始日耳曼語 *krangijaną (使倒下),源自原始日耳曼語 *kringaną*krinkaną (倒下;翻转;屈服)(源自原始印歐語 *grenǵʰ- (翻转))+ *-janą (从强变化动词构成“导致某人某物做某事”一意的使役动词)。英语词与丹麥語 krænge (翻出内侧,使...外翻)荷蘭語 krengen (猛然转向)低地蘇格蘭語 crengecreengecreingecrienge (畏缩,耸肩)瑞典語 kränga (猛然转向;猛然前倾;掷)西弗里斯蘭語 kringe (捏;戳;推;坚持,催促)同源,且是crinkle同源對似詞

名词[3]和形容词派生自动词。

发音[编辑]

动词[编辑]

cringe(第三人稱單數簡單現在時 cringes,現在分詞 cringing,一般過去時及過去分詞 cringed

  1. (不及物) 畏缩退缩
    He cringed as the bird collided with the window.
    那只鸟撞到窗子上,让他[吓得]缩了一下身子
  2. (不及物, 比喻义) 畏惧恐惧恶心(引申义)十分尴尬
  3. (不及物)卑微地)躬身蹲伏卑躬屈膝
    • 1624,Democritus Junior [pseudonym; Robert Burton],“Loue of Learning; or Ouer-much Study. With a Digression of the Misery of Schollers, and Why the Muses are Melancholy.”,出自 The Anatomy of Melancholy: [],2nd edition,Oxford, Oxfordshire:Printed by John Lichfield and James Short, for Henry Cripps, OCLC 54573970, partition 1, section 2, member 3, subsection 15, 頁號113:
      [I]f they keepe their wits, yet they are accompted fooles by reaſon of their carriage, becauſe they cannot ride a horſe, which euery Clowne can doe; ſalute and court a Gentlewoman, carue at table, cringe and make congies, which euery common ſwaſher can doe, [...]
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 1667John Milton,“Book IV”,出自 Paradise Lost. A Poem Written in Ten Books,London: [] [Samuel Simmons], [], OCLC 228722708; republished as Paradise Lost in Ten Books: [],London:Basil Montagu Pickering [],1873, OCLC 230729554, lines 958–961:
      And thou ſly hypocrite, who now wouldſt ſeem / Patron of liberty, who more then thou / Once fawn'd,and cring'd, and ſervilly ador'd / Heav'ns awful Monarch?
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 1846Thomas Cooper,“To the Countess of Blessington”,出自 The Baron’s Yule Feast: A Christmas-rhyme,London:Jeremiah How, [], OCLC 156105509:
      Lady, receive a tributary lay / 源自one who cringeth not to titled state / Conventional, and lacking will to prate / Of comeliness— [...]
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 1891Edgar Fawcett,“How a Queen Loved”,出自 Songs of Doubt and Dream: (Poems),New York, N.Y.; Toronto, Ont.:Funk & Wagnalls, OCLC 3402641, stanza I, 頁號155:
      Humbly thou cringest that with nod of head / Couldst fling me seaward from they steepest cliffs!
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • Template:RQ:London Faith of Men
    • Template:RQ:Du Bois Souls of Black Folk
  4. (不及物, 比喻义) 献媚拍马屁卑躬屈膝
    • 1782John Brown,“The Christian Journal of a Summer-day”,出自 The Christian Journal; or, Common Incidents, Spiritual Instructors. [],4th edition,Edinburgh: [] Gavin Alston; [s]old by William Coke, [], OCLC 316766184, 頁號119:
      Here the beggar accoſts me; had I appeared as himſelf, he had aſked nothing: but now he uncovers, he cringeth, he cries for relief.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • Template:RQ:Macaulay History of England
    • 1880年6月23日,Richard F[rancis] Burton,“The Ethnology of Modern Midian”,出自 Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature of the United Kingdom,卷號XII (Second Series),London:John Murray, []; Trübner and Co., [],出版年份1882, OCLC 301010011, part I (Notices of the Tribes of Midian, [...]), 頁號286:
      Even to the present day the Arabs consider treating a Hutaymi as unmanly as to strike a woman. When a Felláh says to another, "Tat'hattim" (= Tat'maskin, or Tat'zallí), he means, "Thou cringest, thou makest thyself contemptible (as a Hutaymi)."
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
  5. (及物, 棄用) 将...拉近(身体部位)皱起()
  6. (及物, 棄用) 对...点头哈腰;(点头哈腰地)陪同

变位[编辑]

其他形式[编辑]

衍生词汇[编辑]

参见[编辑]

名词[编辑]

cringe可數 & 不可數,複數 cringes

  1. (可數) 畏缩退缩
    He glanced with a cringe at the mess on his desk.
    怯生生地瞥了一眼桌上乱七八糟的东西。
  2. (可數, 比喻义) 卑躬屈膝
  3. (可數, 英國英語, 方言) 抽筋痉挛
  4. (不可數, 俚語) 尴尬
    There was so much cringe in that episode!
    那一集也太了。

形容词[编辑]

cringe比較級 more cringe最高級 most cringe

  1. (俚語) 令人尴尬(指让人尴尬到不适的)
    反義詞: (网络用语) based

注释[编辑]

  1. From Charles Reade (1861), XXXIII, The Cloister and the Hearth: A Tale of the Middle Ages, 卷II (The Autobiography of a Thief), illustrated library版, Boston, Mass.; New York, N.Y.: Colonial Press Company, 出版于c. 1900, OCLC 247436795, illustration between pages 312 and 313.

参考资料[编辑]

  1. crenǧen, v.” in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  2. 对比“cringe, v.”, OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, November 2010; “cringe, v.”, Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  3. cringe, n.”, OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, November 2010; “cringe, n.”, Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.

异序词[编辑]


意大利语[编辑]

词源[编辑]

借自英語 cringe

名词[编辑]

cringe m(複數 cringe

  1. (新詞) 尴尬

波兰语[编辑]

词源[编辑]

非同化借自英語 cringe

发音[编辑]

名词[编辑]

cringe m inan

  1. (俚語) 尴尬
    近義詞: obciachprzypałsiara

变格[编辑]

延伸阅读[编辑]

  • 參見cringeWielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN 中的內容
  • 參見波蘭語詞典PWN上有關cringe的內容

西班牙语[编辑]

词源[编辑]

借自英語 cringe

名词[编辑]

cringe m(复数 cringe

  1. (新詞) 尴尬

形容词[编辑]

cringe(无变化)

  1. (新詞) 令人尴尬的