源自中古英語 stibornestibournestoburnstoburnestyburnestiborn。其词源不详。

一理论认为可能源自*stybor*stibor,源自古英語 stybb (树桩) + 形容词构成后缀 -or,如出现于古英語 bitor英語 bitter的后缀。



stubborn (比較級 stubborner最高級 stubbornest)

  1. 固执的,执拗的;顽固的;坚持不懈
    He is pretty stubborn about his political beliefs, so why bother arguing?
    Blood can make a very stubborn stain on fabrics if not washed properly.
  2. (指材料)坚硬而不易弯曲的;难以加工




stubborn (不可數)

  1. (非正式) 固执顽固
    • 2003, Dana Stabenow, A Grave Denied, →ISBN,頁號 86:
      But I have to say that one thing you inherited from your mother is a whole lot of stubborn.
    • 2014, Victoria Hamilton, Muffin But Murder, →ISBN:
      That takes a lot of stubborn for a seventy-something man.
    • 2016, Ken Robert Baugh, Just Passing Time, →ISBN:
      Stubborn is not eating pizza out of a square pan because you know it won't taste as good as a round one. Stubborn is spending twelve thousand dollars to fix a five-hundred-dollar truck just because it's “your baby.”
  2. 柑橘僵化
    • 1966, Israel Journal of Botany - Volumes 15-17,頁號 131:
      The extremely low number of control plants infected by stubborn disease suggests that natural spread of stubborn in the vicinity of the experiments is much slower than that reported for psylla-borne greening in South Africa (Schwarz, 1964).
    • 1967, Walter Reuther, The Citrus Industry, Volume IV, →ISBN,頁號 129:
      With evidence that the causal agent of stubborn is spread by insects, control or prevention of this disease will prove more difficult than formerly thought to be.
    • 2012, Vincenzo Vacante & Uri Gerson, Integrated Control of Citrus Pests in the Mediterranean Region, →ISBN:
      Sectorial infection of stubborn could be stable for long periods, but may be manifested once the trees are severely pruned, this causing the system spread of S. citri to other non-infected parts.