scram

維基詞典,自由的多語言詞典
參見:SCRAM

英语[编辑]

发音[编辑]

  • (標準英音通用美式) 英語發音skrăm國際音標(幫助)/skɹæm/
  • 文檔
  • 韻部:-æm

词源 1[编辑]

可能是:

动词[编辑]

scram (第三人稱單數簡單現在時 scrams, 現在分詞 scramming, 一般過去時及過去分詞 scrammed)

  1. (不及物美國通常命令式) 匆忙离开滚开 (自20世纪初叶)
    近義詞: 參見Thesaurus:go away
    What are you kids doing on my lawn? Scram!
    你们这帮小孩在我家草地上干嘛?走开走开
    • 1927, Franklin W. Dixon [pseudonym; Leslie McFarlane], “Rival Detectives”, 出自 The Tower Treasure (The Hardy Boys; 1), New York, N.Y.: Grosset & Dunlap, 出版於 1987 (2006 printing), →ISBN:
      Maybe when he found that Chet's jalopy was gone, he felt he'd better scram, and forgot the coat and hat.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 1935, Harry Carr, “So This is Los Angeles”, 出自 Los Angeles, City of Dreams, New York, N.Y., London: D[aniel] Appleton-Century Company, →OCLC頁號 241:
      The boy who was playing glowered at the intruder and growled. "Well, scram Kibitzer; scram."
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 1935 2月 23, J. Lane Linklater, “The Signal: A Short Short Story”, 出自 Fulton Oursler 編, Liberty, 卷 12, 期 8, New York, N.Y.: Liberty Publishing, →OCLC頁號 35,列號 2:
      "Come on!" barked Harry. "Scram!"
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 1937, John Steinbeck, Of Mice and Men, New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books, 出版於 1994, →ISBN:
      Jus' go on like we was gonna buck barley the rest of our lives, then all of a sudden some day we'll go get our pay an' scram outta here.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 1943, Hans Natonek, “The Affair of the Semi-private Bathroom”, 出自 Barthold Fles(譯者), 編者Sugden Tilley, In Search of Myself, New York, N.Y.: G[eorge] P[almer] Putnam’s Sons, part 2 (The Year before the Decision),頁號 89:
      "You scram out of here!" she admonished me fiercely. "Get out, or I'll scream so loud I'll wake the whole house up! You—you Peeping Tom!"
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 1950, Mickey Spillane, My Gun is Quick[1], New York, N.Y.: Signet, New American Library, 出版於 2014, →ISBN:
      One day he packs in here with a new convertible, tells me he's moving out and scrams. Never give me a dime.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 1988, Don DeLillo, Libra[2], New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books, 出版於 2006, →ISBN:
      George was going to Haiti and he knew Lee would feel that the one man whgo took an interest in him was scramming out the door.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 2005 July, MaryJanice Davidson, 章號 28, 出自 Undead and Unappreciated (Berkley Sensation), mass-market版, New York, N.Y.: Berkley Books, 出版於 December 2005, →ISBN頁號 225:
      [T]wo vampires had picked up the guy who needed a new face, and they scrammed.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
衍生词汇[编辑]

词源 2[编辑]

不详,动词可能派生自词源 1[2]有人认为其为“safety control rod actuator mechanism”、“safety control rod axe man”、“safety control rods activation mechanism”之类的缩写,不过大概率是逆向字母补齐得来的。

名词可能派生自动词[3]

动词[编辑]

scram (第三人稱單數簡單現在時 scrams, 現在分詞 scraming scramming, 一般過去時及過去分詞 scramed scrammed) (主要用於核物理學)

  1. (及物) 使...紧急停堆 指核反应堆(引申义) 使...紧急停止,紧急叫停
    • 1976 December, Randy Warsaw, “Fermi II – A Plant Tour”, 出自 Ray Barry 編, The Michigan Technic, 卷 XCV, 期 3, [Ann Arbor, Mich.]: College of Engineering, University of Michigan, →ISSN, →OCLC頁號 15:
      The NCR [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] further demands the plant conform to all the safety requirements put into effect during construction. This means constant re-design. There must also be several ways to scram (emergency shut down) the reactor. Some of these are automatic and some are manual.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 1978, “Appendix II—Answers to Written Questions Posed to Nuclear Regulatory Commission before the Hearings”, 出自 Nuclear Regulatory Commission Authorization Requests: Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy and Power of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-fifth Congress, Second Session, on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Requests for an Increased Authorization for Fiscal Year 1978 and for a Fiscal Year 1979 Authorization of $330,000,000: [] (Serial No. 95-161), Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, →OCLC頁號 794:
      Startup of reactor recirculating pump resulted in flux spike scraming plant.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 1983, Nuclear Power, Both Sides: The Best Arguments for and against the Most Controversial Technology, New York, N.Y.: W[illiam] W[arder] Norton, →ISBN,頁號 22:
      The slightest problem in a reactor will cause the control rods to plunge automatically in the uranium core at high speeds (this is called scramming the reactor) and stop the chain reaction.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 2000, Ralph R. Fullwood, “Analyzing Nuclear Reactor Safety Systems”, 出自 Probabilistic Safety Assessment in the Chemical and Nuclear Industries, Boston, Mass.: Butterworth-Heinemann, →ISBN, section 6.1.4.3 (ABB PIUS),頁號 218:
      Both active and manual methods scram by tripping power to a dedicated pump that unbalances the flows to the[sic] passively scram the reactor.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 2007 6月 22, Samuel Upton Newtan, “Nuclear Reactor Disasters: Part I: Stationary Reactors (Non-breeders)”, 出自 Nuclear War I and Other Major Nuclear Disasters of the 20th Century, Bloomington, Ind., Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire: AuthorHouse, →ISBN頁號 113:
      The reactor was then "scramed", but the control rods did not slide back into the reactor.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 2012 12月 12, D. Michael Battey, 章號 35, 出自 Tenacity Gene, Bloomington, Ind.: iUniverse, →ISBN頁號 174:
      Raising group eight rods and brining a nuclear reactor fully to life for the first time in nearly ten years—everyone was so ready they were all ready to pee in their pants. Andrews did not know he could do it without SCRAMing the reactor—in other words, pushing it into an automatic shutdown that might be too little too late.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
  2. (不及物) 指核反应堆 紧急停堆;(引申义) 紧急停止
    • 1984, Charles Perrow, “Nuclear Power as a High-risk System”, 出自 Normal Accidents: Living with High-risk Technologies, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 出版於 1999, →ISBN頁號 44:
      This shut off current to the control rod mechanism, and the reactor scrammed (shut off) automatically.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 2012, Daniel Yergin, “The Urgency of Fuel Choice”, 出自 The Quest: Energy, Security, and the Remaking of the Modern World, revised版, New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books, →ISBN, part 3 (The Electric Age),頁號 415:
      As soon as the earthquake struck, the reactors "scrammed"—shut down automatically—as they were supposed to.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 2016, Nabil Abu el Ata, Rudolf Schmandt, “Understanding the Hidden Risk of Dynamic Complexity”, 出自 The Tyranny of Uncertainty: A New Framework to Predict, Remediate and Monitor Risk, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, →DOI, →ISBN, part I (Once upon a Time),頁號 21:
      Immediately after the earthquake, following government regulations, the remaining reactors, 1–3, automatically SCRAMed; control rods shut down sustained fission reactions.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
其他形式[编辑]
衍生词汇[编辑]

名词[编辑]

scram (複數 scrams) (主要用於核物理學)

  1. (亦作定語) (核反应堆的) 紧急停堆(引申义) 紧急停止,紧急叫停
    • 1960 10月 5, John Roberts, S. F. Armour, “Introduction”, 出自 T7 Tanker Locking Piston Control Rod Drive Scram Analysis (GEAP 3561), Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Office of Technical Information, United States Atomic Energy Commission, →OCLC頁號 2:
      During scram operation, a scram signal de-energizes the inlet and outlet scram valves. The outlet scram valve vents the volume above the drive piston to a scram dump tank. The inlet scram valve supplies scram pressure obtained from an accumulator to the under side of the vented piston.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 1966 fall, staff of First Atomic Ship Transport, Inc., “Operating Experience of the N.S. Savannah in Commercial Service”, 出自 Nuclear Safety: A Quarterly Technical Progress Review, 卷 8, 期 1, [Oak Ridge, Tenn.]: Division of Technical Information, United States Atomic Energy Commission, →ISSN, →OCLC, section VI,頁號 65:
      Of the 14 scrams experienced, none was caused by operation exceeding the design parameters. Eight scrams occurred with the control rods withdrawn. [...] Six scrams occurred while the rods were inserted. Five were intentional to prevent accidental rod withdrawal, and one was the unintentional result of an instrument adjustment.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 1981, Alan E. Waltar, Albert B. Reynolds, “Unprotected Transients”, 出自 Fast Breeder Reactors (Pergamon International Library of Science, Technology, Engineering and Social Studies), New York, N.Y., Oxford, Oxfordshire: Pergamon Press, →ISBN, section 15-5.D (Loss of Ultimate Heat Sink),頁號 604:
      By the time scram is completed, coolant temperatures would likely be climbing due to the combination of a large heat capacity within the fuel pins and low coolant flow.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 2016, Nabil Abu el Ata, Rudolf Schmandt, “Understanding the Hidden Risk of Dynamic Complexity”, 出自 The Tyranny of Uncertainty: A New Framework to Predict, Remediate and Monitor Risk, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, →DOI, →ISBN, part I (Once upon a Time),頁號 21:
      Although fission stops almost immediately with a SCRAM, fission products in the fuel continue to release decay heat, initially about 6.5% of full reactor power. [...] Corresponding with the SCRAM, emergency generators were automatically activated to power electronics and cooling systems.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 2011, Min Lee, “The Past, Present and Future of Nuclear Power in Taiwan”, 出自 Xu Yi-chong 編, Nuclear Energy Development in Asia: Problems and Prospects, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, →DOI, →ISBN頁號 171:
      Other indicators can be used to measure the performance of an NPP [nuclear power plant] including the number of scrams (emergency shutdowns of a nuclear reactor), the collective dose (a measure of the total amount of effective dose multiplied by the size of the exposed population), the amount of low-level waste generated, and the fuel reliability. The number of scrams dropped from the peak of 30 in 1984 to only one in 2004 and 2–3 in the last two years.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
  2. 紧急停止装置
    • 1963 June, Kenneth Calkins, “Linac and Dynamitron”, 出自 Boeing Magazine, 卷 XXXIII, 期 6, Seattle, Wash.: Public Relations Division, Boeing Airplane Company, →OCLC頁號 6,列號 2:
      Each room housing a radiation source has a red-buttoned "scram" switch on the wall. One touch of the switch and all equipment stops abruptly.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 1993, Tom Clancy, Marine: A Guided Tour of a Marine Expeditionary Unit[3], New York, N.Y.: Berkley Books, 出版於 November 1996, →ISBN:
      She watched as the Marine technical team leader pressed the red SCRAM buttons for each reactor, setting off a chorus of alarms.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 1998, Vladimir M. Munipov, “Ergonomics [Disregarding Ergonomic Design Principles: Chernobyl]”, 出自 Jeanne Mager Stellman 編, Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety, 4th版, 卷 I, Geneva: International Labour Office, →ISBN頁號s 29-96:
      In particular, measures have been taken to make the scram system more fast-operating and to exclude any possibility of its being deliberately shut off by the personnel.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 2004, Dieter Berg, “Radionuclides Released into the Environment”, 出自 Man-made and Natural Radioactivity in Environmental Pollution and Radiochronology (Environmental Pollution), Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media, →DOI, →ISBN頁號 119:
      Today it is considered to be true that the accident paradoxically was ultimately caused by the emergency shut down of the reactor. By sending in the practically completely withdrawn scram and control rods, the reactivity of the reactor by the faulty conception of the rods was for a short time not lowered, but augmented.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
其他形式[编辑]

词源 3[编辑]

动词是英语方言词scramb (用手拉起;从地上抓起;用指甲、爪子挠;猛地拉下;撕开;撕咬;从地上捡起的一抓东西)的一个变体,可能与荷蘭語 schrammen (擦,划)[4]德語 schrammen ()有关,参见词源 1

名词派生自动词。

动词[编辑]

scram (第三人稱單數簡單現在時 scrams, 現在分詞 scramming, 一般過去時及過去分詞 scrammed)

  1. (及物德比郡威爾士) (用指甲、爪子)
    • [1996–2020, Ted Duckworth, “scram”, 出自 A Dictionary of Slang[4],於30 August 2013歸檔自原頁面:
      scram [...] Verb. [...] 2. To scratch, with claws or fingernails. E.g. "It's my own fault the cat scrammed me, I was teasing it." [South Wales use]
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)]
    • 2013 12月 19, Abby Bolter, “Firefighters Rescue Woman Trapped in Bridgend Flat following an Alleged Arson Attack”, 出自 WalesOnline[5],於24 December 2013歸檔自原頁面:
      A woman has praised firefighters and her cat for saving her life following an alleged arson attack. Two-and-a-half-year-old tortoiseshell Taffy repeatedly bit owner Tracie Horgan-Hodgkiss on the hand until she woke up when her flat filled with acrid smoke in the early hours of this morning. [...] "I’d like to say thank you very much to the firefighters for coming to rescue me. And I am sorry that Taffy scrammed one of them!"
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
      (Also reported as “Cat wakes woman as flat fills with smoke”", The Daily Telegraph, 21 December 2013, page 17.)
  2. (及物美國礦業古舊) (在已经开发过的矿道中)零碎矿石
    • 1880, “Marquette Iron District”, 出自 Annual Report of the Commissioner of Mineral Statistics of the State of Michigan, for 1879, Lansing, Mich.: W. S. George & Co., [], →OCLC頁號 167:
      Just west of this pit is another one, which has been nearly worked out; but three men are scramming about five tons per day in it.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 1882, A. P. Swineford, “The Cyclops Mine”, 出自 Annual Review of the Iron Mining and Other Industries of the Upper Peninsula for the Year Ending Dec. 31, 1881, [Marquette, Mich.]: Mining Journal, →OCLC頁號 141:
      Recently, Capt. Oliver, [...] set a couple of experienced miners to work scramming in this underground pit, when it was soon discovered that what the former mining captain had conceived to be a regular foot-wall, was, in fact, a thin shale of rock, which hid from view what now appears to be a very large body of clean blue ore.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)

名词[编辑]

scram (複數 scrams)

  1. (德比郡威爾士) (爪子、指甲的)
    • [1996–2020, Ted Duckworth, “scram”, 出自 A Dictionary of Slang[6],於30 August 2013歸檔自原頁面:
      scram [...] Noun. [...] 2. A scratch. [South Wales use]
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)]
  2. (美國礦業古舊) (已经开发过但现在仍小规模开采的)矿道矿井
    • 1887, Cha[rle]s D. Lawton, “The Jackson Iron Co.”; “The Cleveland Mining Co.”, 出自 Mines and Mineral Statistics, Lansing, Mich.: Thorp & Godfrey, [], →OCLC頁號s 64 and 67:
      [page 64] Many of these old openings still afford places where ore is mined. A man can start in almost anywhere and fine ore. There is a great deal of this "scramming" done at the Jackson. Quite a proportion of the annual product comes in this way. Not unfrequently one of these "scrams" leads to the finding of a large deposit of ore. [...] [page 67] South from the east part of the Incline pit they have a scram of good ore which furnished a small product.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
    • 1891, N[ewton] H[orace] Winchell, H[orace] V[aughn] Winchell, “The Chandler Mine”, 出自 The Iron Ores of Minnesota, [] (Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota Bulletin; no. 6), Minneapolis, Minn.: Harrison & Smith, [], →OCLC, part II (Methods of Exploration and Mining, and Descriptions of the Various Mines),頁號 196:
      There are numbered workings running to about 20, representing small pits and scrams, sometimes worked by contract by "scrammers."
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)

词源 4[编辑]

词源不详。[5]

动词[编辑]

scram (第三人稱單數簡單現在時 scrams, 現在分詞 scramming, 一般過去時及過去分詞 scrammed) (不及物英國方言古舊)

  1. (指身体、躯体因寒冷或缺乏运动而) 麻痹僵硬
  2. (因伤病、意外而)变虚弱
    • [1867], 章號 I, 出自 How Mary Edmonds Did What She Could; and What Came of it after Many Days, London: The Religious Tract Society, [], →OCLC頁號s 14–15:
      "But they will be scrammed!* the children will be scrammed, Mary, before morning," cried Jim, scratching his head with perplexity and distress at the very thought of two young creatures sleeping on the bare boards, in a cold garret with only a shawl to cover them. [Footnote *: Starved.]
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)

参考资料[编辑]

  1. scram, v.2”, OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, 1982; compare “scram, v.”, Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  2. scram, v.3”, OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, 1982; “scram, v.”, Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  3. scram, n.2”, OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, 1982; “scram, n.”, Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  4. 约瑟夫·莱特, editor (1905), “SCRAMB, v. and sb.”, The English Dialect Dictionary: [] [英语方言词典: []], 卷V (R–S), 伦敦: Henry Frowde, [], publisher to the English Dialect Society, []; New York, N.Y.: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, OCLC 81937840, 页269: “To scratch with the nails or claws.”
  5. 对比约瑟夫·莱特, editor (1905), “SCRAM, v.3”, The English Dialect Dictionary: [] [英语方言词典: []], 卷V (R–S), 伦敦: Henry Frowde, [], publisher to the English Dialect Society, []; New York, N.Y.: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, OCLC 81937840, 页269, 卷1

延伸阅读[编辑]

异序词[编辑]