typhoon

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參見:Typhoon

英语[编辑]

英語維基百科有一篇文章關於:
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Typhoon Hagupit (2014)
A typhoon

词源[编辑]

有英语文献在至晚16世纪50年代将typhontiphon记载为希腊语词,意为“旋风”,[1][2]指的是古希臘語 τυφῶν (tuphôn)[1]τυφώς (tuphṓs, 旋风)(后者自埃斯库罗斯起可考)、[3]Τυφῶν (Tuphôn, 堤丰,风之父)。(法語 typhon (旋风)自1504年起可考。[4]))

然而,其作为英语词首次用来指代“旋风”、“风暴”可追溯到1588年,作Touffon,特指“太平洋的大型风暴”。该词义在16世纪中叶首次出现于欧洲,为葡萄牙語 tufão(至晚1560年起可考),由此进入英语。[1][5]葡萄牙水手们多半从阿拉伯語 طُوفَان(ṭūfān)学来该词(对比波斯語 طوفان(tufân)印地語 तूफ़ान (tūfān)),[1][6][7]且部分该词的英语词形(如tufan)似乎直接派生自该阿拉伯语词。

有说法认为阿拉伯语词源自漢語族 大風大风官話 dàfēng粵語 daai6 fung1 /taːi̯²² fʊŋ⁵⁵/客家語 thai-fûng /tʰai̯⁵⁵ fuŋ²⁴/),[8]一些诸如tyfoong, tyfung的英语词形源自汉语或受到了其影响。然而,阿拉伯语词可能是完全的纯闪米特语族[1],源自原生词干ط و ف(ṭ-w-f),指旋转的风,[9]或者可能其派生自希腊语。[8][9](部分文献甚至认为其源自希腊语,经由阿拉伯语进入汉语,再回借回阿拉伯语,再回到欧洲。[10])该词多年来受到了希腊语词的影响。[1][11]

发音[编辑]

  • (標準英音) IPA(幫助)/taɪˈfuːn/
  • (通用美式) 英語發音tīfo͞onʹIPA(幫助)/taɪˈfun/
  • 文檔
  • 文檔
  • 韻部:-uːn

名词[编辑]

typhoon (複數 typhoons)

  1. 颱風

其他形式[编辑]

衍生词汇[编辑]

派生語彙[编辑]

  • 俄語:тайфу́н (tajfún)
    • 格魯吉亞語:ტაიფუნი (ṭaipuni)
    • 哈薩克語:тайфун (taifun)
  • 土耳其語:tayfun

动词[编辑]

typhoon (第三人稱單數簡單現在時 typhoons,現在分詞 typhooning,一般過去時及過去分詞 typhooned)

  1. (不及物)台风一样旋转

参见[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Douglas Harper (2001–2024), “typhoon”, 在线词源词典》(Online Etymology Dictionary
  2. Richard Eden, Decades of the New World (1555), translating De orbe novo decades by Peter Martyr, published in 1895 by Edward Arber in The First Three English Books on America, page 81: "These tempestes of the ayer (which the Grecians caule Tiphones, that is, whyrle wyndes) they caule, FuracanesTemplate:SIC: which they say, doo often tymes chaunce in this Ilande: [] "
  3. Liddell and Scott
  4. 查看“typhon”在le Trésor de la langue française informatisé(《法语数字化宝库》)中的释义。 (for 1504 they cite J. Lemaire de Belges, Couronne margaritique ds Œuvres, éd. J. Stecher, p. 85: "ceux qui la portent [cette pierre précieuse, le corail], sont preservez de plusieurs perilz en mer et en terre: et mesmement dun vent fulmineux et subtil, nommé Typhon, qui esrache les arbres"; the spellings typhon, tiffon, tifon persist for the rest of the 1500s before tuffon appears in 1619 and tufan, tufaon in 1628)
  5. Thomas Hickock's translation of The voyage and trauell of M. Caesar Fredericke, Marchant of Venice, into the East India, and beyond the Indies: "concerning which Touffon ye are to vnderstand, that in the East Indies often times, there are not stormes as in other countreys; but euery 10. or 12. yeeres there are such tempests and stormes, that it is a thing incredible, but to those that haue seene it."
  6. Andrew Delahunty, From Bonbon to Cha-cha: Oxford Dictionary of Foreign Words and Phrases
  7. Tai Whan Kim, The Portuguese Element in Japanese: A Critical Survey (1976): "several points suggest that the Portuguese word came from the Arabic, not from Chinese tai-fung"
  8. 8.0 8.1 typhoon”, Dictionary.com Unabridged, Dictionary.com, LLC, 1995–present
  9. 9.0 9.1 A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles
  10. The Arabic Contributions to the English Language: An Historical Dictionary by Garland Hampton Cannon and Alan S. Kaye considers typhoon "a special case, transmitted by Cantonese, from Arabic, but ultimately deriving from Greek. [...] The Chinese applied the [Greek] concept to a rather different wind [...]"
  11. Template:R:Corriente:2008