- Thomas Hickock's translation of The voyage and trauell of M. Caesar Fredericke, Marchant of Venice, into the East India, and beyond the Indies: "concerning which Touffon ye are to vnderstand, that in the East Indies often times, there are not stormes as in other countreys; but euery 10. or 12. yeeres there are such tempests and stormes, that it is a thing incredible, but to those that haue seene it, neither do they know certainly what yeere they wil come." (“typhoon” in the Online Etymology Dictionary, Douglas Harper, 2001)
- Frederick Hirth, The word "Typhoon," its history and origin, in The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society (1880)，本文讨论了大致发音相似的该词的出现及其在汉语、阿拉伯语、波斯语、印地语和希腊语中的汉语（但不确定其派生自何语言），且记载了其出现在早期葡萄牙语内。
- The Arabic Contributions to the English Language: An Historical Dictionary by Garland Hampton Cannon and Alan S. Kaye considers typhoon "a special case, transmitted by Cantonese, from Arabic, but ultimately deriving from Greek. [...] The Chinese applied the [Greek] concept to a rather different wind [...]"
- Andrew Delahunty, From Bonbon to Cha-cha: Oxford Dictionary of Foreign Words and Phrases
- Tai Whan Kim, The Portuguese Element in Japanese: A Critical Survey (1976): several points suggest that the Portuguese word came from the Arabic, not from Chinese tai-fung ...