源自西佛蘭德語荷蘭語 grof (粗魯的,粗糙的),源自中古荷蘭語 grof (粗糙的),源自古荷蘭語 *grof,其形成及相關詞不確定,但基本上能確定與薩特弗里斯蘭語 groaf (粗糙的)西弗里斯蘭語 grof (粗糙的)低地德語 groff (粗糙的,粗魯的)德語 grob (粗糙的,粗魯的)瑞典語 grov (粗糙的,粗魯的)同源。

可能起源自原始西日耳曼語 *gahrob,源自原始日耳曼語 *gahrubaz*hrubaz,與原始日耳曼語 *hreubaz (粗糙的,硬皮的,結痂的)有關;或可能源自原始西日耳曼語 *grob,源自原始日耳曼語 *grubaz (粗糙的)


  • 國際音標(幫助)/ɡɹʌf/
  • 文檔
  • 韻部:-ʌf


gruff (比較級 gruffer最高級 gruffest)

  1. 舉止粗魯
  2. 聲音嘶啞


  • 1727 "The manner of it was more after the pleasing Transports of those ancient Poets you are often charm'd with, than after the fierce unsociable way of modern Zealots; those starch'd gruff Gentlemen, who guard Religion as Bullys to a Mistress, and give us the while a very indifferent Opinion of their Lady's Merit, and their own Wit, by adoring what they neither allow to be inspected by others, nor care themselves to examine in a fair light." — Anthony Ashley Cooper Shaftesbury. Characteristicks of men, manners, opinions, times. Vol II. p218
  • 1729 "They had no Titles of Honour among them, but such as denoted some Bodily Strength or Perfection, as such an one the Tall, such an one the Stocky, such an one the Gruff." — Joseph Addison, Richard Steele. The Spectator. Vol VI, No 433. p146
  • 1825 "Mr. Suberville, as well as she, surprised and pleased at this proof of politeness so unsuited to his gouty appearance and gruff manners, looked at him in astonishment, but were sorry to perceive him stoop down as if he had strained his leg in the exertion, while the pain it caused seemed to have driven every drop of his blood into his sallow face." — Thomas Colley Grattan. High-ways and by-ways. Vol III. p209-10



gruff (第三人稱單數簡單現在時 gruffs,現在分詞 gruffing,一般過去時及過去分詞 gruffed)

  1. 說話粗魯
    • 2001, Benny Hinn, He Touched Me: An Autobiography
      “Who gave you that?” replied my father angrily. “Did you bribe someone?” “No,” I told him. “It was a gift, from some people who really want me to be on this trip.” “Fine,” he gruffed.



gruff n

  1. 爭執爭吵