publicus

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拉丁语[编辑]

其他形式[编辑]

词源[编辑]

源自古拉丁語 poplicus,源自古拉丁語 poplus,其发展为了拉丁語 populus (人民),最终源自原始意大利語 *poplos (军队),其词源不详。

传统上将从-ŏp--ūb-的变换解释为同根词pūbēs (成年人口;青年期;生殖器)的吸引。[1]另一解释认为这是一个可分为两步的规则发音变换:-p-的浊化,以及-o--ou-的拆分(而单元音化为-ū-)。[2]

发音[编辑]

形容词[编辑]

pūblicus(阴性 pūblica,中性 pūblicum); 第一/第二類變格 形容詞

  1. 人民的、国家的或社会
    • 58-49 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar, De Bello Gallico, VI.13.4:
      Illi rebus divinis intersunt, sacrificia publica ac privata procurant, religiones interpretantur.
      (請為本引文添加中文翻譯)
  2. 公共的,普遍

变格[编辑]

第一/第二類變格 adjective。

單數 複數
格 / 性 陽性 陰性 中性 陽性 陰性 中性
主格 pūblicus pūblica pūblicum pūblicī pūblicae pūblica
屬格 pūblicī pūblicae pūblicī pūblicōrum pūblicārum pūblicōrum
與格 pūblicō pūblicō pūblicīs
賓格 pūblicum pūblicam pūblicum pūblicōs pūblicās pūblica
奪格 pūblicō pūblicā pūblicō pūblicīs
呼格 pūblice pūblica pūblicum pūblicī pūblicae pūblica

近义词[编辑]

衍生词汇[编辑]

相关词汇[编辑]

派生語彙[编辑]

名词[编辑]

pūblicus m(属格 pūblicī); 第二类变格

  1. 地方执法

变格[编辑]

第二類變格名詞。

單數 複數
主格 pūblicus pūblicī
屬格 pūblicī pūblicōrum
與格 pūblicō pūblicīs
賓格 pūblicum pūblicōs
奪格 pūblicō pūblicīs
呼格 pūblice pūblicī

参考资料[编辑]

  • publicus in Charlton T. Lewis & Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1879
  • publicus在Charles du Fresne du Cange的Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition, 1883–1887)
  • publicus在Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français (拉丁語-法語詳解詞典), Hachette中的內容
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[3], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • (模糊)to be interred (at the expense of the state, at one's own cost): funere efferri or simply efferri (publice; publico, suo sumptu)
    • statesmen: auctores consilii publici
    • public land; state domain: ager publicus
    • (模糊)in the time of the Republic: libera re publica
    • (模糊)to be interred (at the expense of the state, at one's own cost): funere efferri or simply efferri (publice; publico, suo sumptu)
    • (模糊)to be cast out unburied: proiici inhumatum (in publicum)
    • (模糊)in the streets: in publico
    • (模糊)to show oneself in the streets, in public: in publicum prodire (Verr. 2. 1. 31)
    • (模糊)to never appear in public: publico carere, se abstinere
    • (模糊)at the time of a most satisfactory government: optima re publica
    • (模糊)the Republic: libera res publica, liber populus
    • (模糊)to hold the first position in the state: principem in re publica locum obtinere
    • (模糊)public affairs: negotia publica (Off. 1. 20. 69)
    • (模糊)to take part in politics: in re publica or in rebus publicis versari
    • (模糊)to retire from public life: a re publica recedere
    • (模糊)to shun publicity: publico carere, forum ac lucem fugere
    • (模糊)the state is secure: res publica stat (opp. iacet)
    • (模糊)for the advantage of the state; in the interests of the state: e re publica (opp. contra rem p.)
    • (模糊)the welfare of the state: summa res publica (or summa rei publicae)
    • (模糊)the interests of the state: commoda publica or rei publicae rationes
    • (模糊)to have the good of the state at heart: bene, optime sentire de re publica
    • (模糊)to have the good of the state at heart: omnia de re publica praeclara atque egregia sentire
    • (模糊)statesmen: viri rerum civilium, rei publicae gerendae periti or viri in re publica prudentes
    • (模糊)an experienced politician: homo in re publica exercitatus
    • (模糊)to possess great political insight: plus in re publica videre
    • (模糊)a man's policy is aiming at, directed towards..: alicuius in re publica or capessendae rei publicae consilia eo spectant, ut...
    • (模糊)to bring a law before the notice of the people: legem proponere in publicum
    • (模糊)a political ally: consiliorum in re publica socius
    • (模糊)to have the same political opinions: idem de re publica sentire
    • (模糊)to hold different views in politics: ab aliquo in re publica dissentire
    • (模糊)democracy: imperium populi or populare, civitas or res publica popularis
    • (模糊)to betray the interests of the state: a re publica deficere
    • (模糊)the public income from the mines: pecunia publica, quae ex metallis redit
    • (模糊)let the consuls take measures for the protection of the state: videant or dent operam consules, ne quid res publica detrimenti capiat (Catil. 1. 2. 4)
    • (模糊)to let out public works to contract: locare opera publica
    • (模糊)the council of the nation; the senate: publicum consilium (Phil. 7.7. 19)
    • (模糊)a criminal case: causa publica (Brut. 48. 178)
  1. De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7)‎[1], Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 9789004167971
  2. Ranjan Sen (2015) Syllable and Segment in Latin[2], Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780199660186, 页146