hostis

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拉丁語[编辑]

其他寫法[编辑]

詞源[编辑]

源自原始意大利語 *hostis ← 原始印歐語 *gʰóstis (客人,陌生人),參見原始日耳曼語 *gastiz原始斯拉夫語 *gostь

發音[编辑]

(古典) IPA(幫助)/ˈhos.tis/, [ˈhɔs.t̪ɪs]

名詞[编辑]

hostis m f(属格 hostis); 第三类变格

  1. 敵人陌生人
  2. 敵人敵軍

變格[编辑]

第三類變格 noun (i-stem)。

單數 複數
主格 hostis hostēs
屬格 hostis hostium
與格 hostī hostibus
賓格 hostem hostēs
hostīs
奪格 hoste hostibus
呼格 hostis hostēs

派生詞[编辑]

派生語彙[编辑]

  • 阿羅馬尼亞語: oasti
  • 阿斯圖里亞斯語: güeste
  • 加泰羅尼亞語: host
  • 英語: host
  • 古法語: ost, host
    • 法語: ost
    • 諾曼語: hôt (Pays de Bray)
    • 皮卡第語: hôt
  • 加利西亞語: hoste

參考資料[编辑]

  • hostis in Charlton T. Lewis & Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1879
  • hostis in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • hostis在Charles du Fresne du Cange的Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition, 1883–1887)
  • hostis在Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français(圖解拉丁語-法語詞典), Hachette中的內容。
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to cut one's way (through the enemies' ranks): ferro viam facere (per confertos hostes)
    • the foe is at our heels, is upon us: hostis in cervicibus alicuius est
    • to try one's strength with the enemy; to try issue of battle: periculum hostis facere
    • to cut off all supplies of the enemy: intercludere, prohibere hostes commeatu
    • to surprise and defeat the enemy: opprimere hostes (imprudentes, incautos, inopinantes)
    • to make an inroad into hostile territory: excursionem in hostium agros facere
    • to offer battle to the enemy: potestatem, copiam pugnandi hostibus facere
    • to provoke the enemy to battle: proelio (ad pugnam) hostes lacessere, provocare
    • to not let the enemy escape: hostem e manibus non dimittere
    • to march on the enemy: gradum inferre in hostem
    • to attack the enemy: aggredi hostem
    • to attack the enemy: invadere, impetum facere in hostem
    • to attack the enemy: signa inferre in hostem
    • to rush into the midst of the foe: in medios hostes se inicere
    • to break through the enemy's centre: per medios hostes (mediam hostium aciem) perrumpere
    • to come to close quarters: manum (us) conserere cum hoste
    • to come to close quarters: signa conferre cum hoste
    • to attack the enemy in the front: adversis hostibus occurrere
    • to attack the enemy in the rear: aversos hostes aggredi
    • to attack the enemy in the rear: hostes a tergo adoriri
    • to fight a pitched, orderly battle with an enemy: iusto (opp. tumultuario) proelio confligere cum hoste (Liv. 35. 4)
    • to throw oneself on the enemy with drawn sword: strictis gladiis in hostem ferri
    • to fall upon the enemy's flank: in latus hostium incurrere
    • to surround the enemy from the rear: circumvenire hostem aversum or a tergo (B. G. 2. 26)
    • to be surrounded by the superior force of the enemy: multitudine hostium cingi
    • to be a match for the enemy: parem (opp. imparem) esse hosti
    • to repulse the enemy: pellere hostem
    • the enemy's line is repulsed: acies hostium impellitur
    • to drive the enemy from his position: loco movere, depellere, deicere hostem (B. G. 7. 51)
    • to repel the attack of the enemy's cavalry: summovere or reicere hostium equites
    • to repulse an attack: repellere, propulsare hostem
    • to rout the enemy: prosternere, profligare hostem
    • to put the enemy to flight: in fugam dare, conicere hostem
    • to put the enemy to flight: fugare hostem
    • to rout the enemy's forces: fundere hostium copias
    • to utterly rout the enemy: caedere et fundere hostem
    • to utterly rout the enemy: fundere et fugare hostem
    • to drive the enemy before one: prae se agere hostem
    • to run away from the enemy: terga dare hosti
    • to pursue the enemy: hostes insequi, prosequi
    • to follow up and harass the enemy when in flight: hostes (fusos) persequi
    • to overtake the enemy: hostes assequi, consequi
    • to be on the heels of the enemy: tergis hostium inhaerere
    • to bring the flying enemy to a stand: fugam hostium reprimere (B. G. 3. 14)
    • there was great slaughter of fugitives: magna caedes hostium fugientium facta est
    • to escape from the hands of the enemy: effugere, elābi e manibus hostium
    • to let the enemy escape: dimittere e manibus hostes
    • to rescue some one from the hands of the enemy: eripere aliquem e manibus hostium
    • to inflict a defeat on the enemy: cladem hostibus afferre, inferre
    • to annihilate, cut up the enemy, an army: hostes, exercitum delere, concīdere
    • to absolutely annihilate the enemy: hostes ad internecionem caedere, delere (Liv. 9. 26)
    • to absolutely annihilate the enemy: hostium copias occidione occīdere (Liv. 2. 51)
    • to gain a victory over the enemy: victoriam reportare ab hoste
    • to throw grappling irons on board; to board: in navem (hostium) transcendere
  • hostis in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • Template:R:Smith's Antiquities

葡萄牙語[编辑]

形容詞[编辑]

hostis

  1. hostil複數