इव

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梵語[编辑]

副詞[编辑]

इव (iva)

  1. like(相似的), in the same manner as (與……相同的方式)(在這個意義上 = यथा (yathā), 并關聯使用於 तथा (tathā))
  2. as it were(在某種程度上), as if(好像)
    patheva — as if on a path
  3. in a certain manner(在特定方式下), in some measure(多少有些), a little(一些), perhaps(或許)(用於限定或強論斷的緩和)
  4. nearly(差不多), almost(幾乎), about(大約)
    muhūrtam iva — almost an hour
  5. so(那么), just so(正是如此), just(正好), exactly(正確的), indeed(確實的), very(極其) (特別是在涉及某種限制的詞之後:)
    īṣad iva — just a little
    kiṃcid iva — just a little bit; 和在否定之後,比如
    na cirād iva — very soon
  6. (作為一個質詞) connected vaguely(有不確切的聯系的), 和 somewhat pleonastically(稍微冗余的), 聯合於疑問代詞或副詞,比如:
    kim iva — what?
    katham iva — how could that possibly be?
    kveva — where, I should like to know?

用法[编辑]

在梨俱吠陀、耶柔吠陀和阿闥婆吠陀 pada 文本中,據本土文法家,iva 被認為是前接詞,因此和前面的詞複合在一起。

引用[编辑]

  • Sir Monier Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English dictionary etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1898, page 0168